Svetasv logo


Home Contact



A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Daniel 10-12
Part 2: Daniel 11

Kuruvilla Thomas
Bangalore



Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

Daniel 10-12 Timeline

Fig. 1


Introduction

In Part 2 of this 3-Part study, we treat Daniel 11 as a cryptochiasmus in order to arrive at a coherent reconfiguration of the text. In Part 3, we will show that parts of this passage form a cryptochiasmus with chapter 12, so that we get four interwoven prophecies from Ch 11&12. In Part 1, we pointed out the Janus connecting Daniel 10 to Daniel 11-12 and commented on Daniel 10.

Text that is structured as a cryptochiasmus must be rearranged based on certain principles to be correctly interpreted. A cryptochiasmus is a new concept; see definition in [1]. If you wish to skip the technicalities of a chiastic parse, you may read starting from Section 4 of the Discussion section, which has the reconfigured text.

The prophecy in Daniel 11 traces the history of the Greek empire in extraordinarily detail. But it focuses on one of the Greek kings, Antiochus Epiphanes, a type of the Antichrist.


Note:
We will use the term "Judahite" to refer to the Israelites - primarily those of the tribe of Judah and their descendants - that remained after the Assyrian exile of the Northern Tribes; we will try to avoid the term "Jew" to avoid the confusion it introduces.



Discussion

1. Presuppositions

We base our parse on Daniel 11 on the assumption that it refers to 3 periods:
  1. The Greek Empire (c. 333BC-164BC). The history of two kingdoms of the Hellenistic Greek Empire. Most of the chapter is devoted to this Period.
  2. The First Jewish–Roman War (66AD–73AD).
  3. The reign of the Antichrist (2023AD-2027AD). The Antichrist/Beast system (Rev 13) reigns for a period of 3 1/2 years. We get the 2027AD date from our parse of Isaiah 60-62 [7].

2. Parsing the chiasmus

We will use the NIV translation for this parse.

Parsing this chiasmus involves dividing the text into three categories as above. We will call the period from Cyrus to Antiochus Epiphanes Period 1, the time of the First Jewish-Roman War Period 2 and the time of the Antichrist Period 3.

Categorizing vs 2-45

Vs 2-30a belong to Period 1. The period from Alexander the Great to Antiochus Epiphanes of the Seleucid Empire (the Medo-Persian empire is also mentioned in a prologue). This passage has detailed prophecies on the Six Syrian Wars, fought between the Syrian and Egyptian kingdoms of the Greek Empire - the Kings to the North and South of Israel.

Vs 30b appears to belong to Period 3. The Antichrist will show favour to those who reject Christianity, the only relevant Holy Covenant extant at the time.

Vs 31 belongs to Period 2. The two attacks on Jerusalem at the beginning (66AD) and in the middle (70AD) of the war. The Roman army (abomination that causes desolation) stops sacrifices at Jerusalem in 70AD, the midpoint of the war.

Vs 32-36 belong to Period 3. During his reign, the Antichrist will persecute Christians. He will have complete authority over the world but only for a short time. We believe that vs 36 applies to the Antichrist and not to Antiochus of Period 1, because: while the Antichrist is assigned a pre-determined time to rule (see Dan. 7:24,25), there is no mention of a "time of wrath" assigned to Antiochus' attack on the Judahites; also, we can find no explicit mention of Antiochus saying "unheard-of things against the God of gods".

Vs 37-45 belong to Period 1. Details on Antiochus' religious beliefs, his accomplishments and his last days. We believe that vs 37-39 are not about the Antichrist because the specifics mentioned - gold, silver, precious stones, fortresses - conform better to the time of Antiochus.



Original text

We color-code the chiastic units of the original text (NIV) below for easy visual identification using: red for Period 1, blue for Period 2, green for Period 3. We have retranslated parts of the text.


Chapter 11 2 “Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth [a] will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece. 3 Then a mighty king will arise, who will rule with great power and do as he pleases. 4 After he has arisen, his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.
5 “The king of the South will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power.
6 After some years, they will become allies; for the [b] daughter of the king of the South will go to the king of the North to make an alliance, but she will not retain her power, and he and his power will not last. In those days she will be betrayed, together with her royal escort and her offspring, [c] the one who supported her.
7 “One from her family line will arise in his [d] place. He will attack the forces of the king of the North and enter his fortress; he will fight against them and be victorious. 8 He will also seize their gods, their metal images and their valuable articles of silver and gold and carry them off to Egypt. For some years he will leave the king of the North alone. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.[e] 10 His sons will prepare for war and assemble a great army, which will sweep on like an irresistible flood. He shall return and war, even to his fortress.[f]
11 “Then the king of the South will march out in a rage and fight against the king of the North, who will field [g] a large army, but it will be defeated. 12 When the army is swept away [h], the king of the South will be filled with pride, for he will slaughter many thousands. Yet [i] he will not remain triumphant. 13 For the king of the North will muster another army, larger than the first; and after several years, he will advance with a huge army fully equipped.
14 “In those times many will rise against the king of the South. Those who are violent among your own people will exalt themselves in the fulfillment [j] of the vision, but without success. 15 Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city. The forces of the South will be powerless to resist; even their best troops will not have the strength to stand. 16 The invader will do as he pleases; no one will be able to stand against him. He will establish himself in the Beautiful Land and will have the power to destroy it. 17 He will determine to come with the might of his entire kingdom. He will [k] make an alliance with the king of the South. And he will give him a daughter in marriage in order to overthrow the kingdom, but his plans will not succeed or help him. 18 Then he will turn his attention to the coastlands and will take many of them, but a commander will put an end to his insolence and will turn his insolence back on him. 19 After this, he will turn back toward the fortresses of his own country but will stumble and fall, to be seen no more.
20 “His successor will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor. In a few years, however, he will be destroyed, yet not in anger or in battle.
21 “He will be succeeded by a contemptible person who has not been given the honor of royalty, but he will come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue. [l] 22 With the power of a flood will they be swept away before him and will be crushed, and also the prince of the covenant.[m] 23 After coming to an agreement with him, he will act deceitfully, and with only a few people he will rise to power. 24 During a time of peace, he will go into even the richest parts of the realm, and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his forefathers have done, distributing among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He will devise plans against fortresses, but only for a time. [n]
25 “With a large army he will stir up his strength and courage against the king of the South. The king of the South will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him. 26 Those who eat from the king’s provisions will try to destroy him; his army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle. 27 The two kings, with their hearts bent on evil, will sit at the same table and lie to each other, but to no avail, because an end will still come at the appointed time. 28 The king of the North will return to his own country with great wealth, but his heart will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action against it and then return to his own country.
29 “At the appointed time he will invade the South again, but this time the outcome will be different from what it was before. 30a Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart. Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant.

30b He will return and show favor to those who forsake the holy covenant.
31 “His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.
32 With flattery he will corrupt those who have violated the covenant, but the people who know their God will firmly resist him.
33 “Those who are wise will instruct many, though for a time they will fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered. 34 When they fall, they will receive a little help, and many who are not sincere will join them. 35 Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotless until the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time.
36 “The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place.
37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all. 38 Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his ancestors he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god, whom he will acknowledge and increase with glory. He will cause them to rule over many, and will carve out land for gain. [o]
40 “In the end, [p] the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood. 41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many will be overthrown [q], but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand. 42 He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission. 44 But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many. 45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will die [r], and no one will help him.

Retranslation notes for Daniel 11
[a] vs 2 "the fourth" instead of "then a fourth, who".
[b] vs 6 "; for the " instead of ". The".
[c] vs 6 "offspring, " instead of "father and".
[d] vs 7 "in his" instead of "to take her".
[e] vs 9 "So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land". Verse taken from the KJV
[f] vs 10 "flood. He shall return and war, even to his fortress" instead of "flood and carry the battle as far as his fortress".
[g] vs 11 "field" instead of "raise".
[h] vs 12 "swept away" instead of "carried off".
[i] vs 12 ", for he will slaughter many thousands. Yet" instead of " and will slaughter many thousands, yet". Modified conjunction, changed punctuation for chiasmus.
[j] vs 14 "exalt themselves in the fulfillment" instead of "rebel in fulfillment".
[k] vs 17 ". He will" instead of "and will".
[l] vs 21 "royalty, but he will come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue" instead of "royalty. He will invade the kingdom when its people feel secure, and he will seize it through intrigue".
[m] vs 22 Verse retranslated, based on the KJV.
[n] vs 24 Retranslated verse.
[o] vs 39 ", whom he will acknowledge and increase with glory. He will cause them to rule over many, and will carve out land for gain" instead of " and will greatly honor those who acknowledge him. He will make them rulers over many people and will distribute the land at a price".
[p] vs 40 "In the end," instead of "At the time of the end".
[q] vs 41 "will be overthrown" instead of "countries will fall".
[r] vs 45 "die" instead of "come to his end". Mainly for chiastic balance.

(Retranslations for vs 30b-36 can be found in Part 3.)


3. Building the reconfigured text

From this parse, it appears that verses 2-45 form a cryptochiasmus as below:

A1   2-30a Period 1. Alexander, Kings of the North and South
  B1   30b Period 3. The Antichrist against Christianity
    X   31 Period 2. The Abomination that causes Desolation
  B2   32-36 Period 3. The Antichrist's reign
A2   37-45 Period 1. The last days of Antiochus Epiphanes


We now reconstruct the passages in the right order based on the chiastic structure above and based on the ordering rules of a cryptochiasmus [1].

We usually lead with the pivot point but for this reconstruction we place the central pivot 'X' at the end so that we get a multiply-applied chiasmus with Ch 12 (the rules of cryptochiasmi [1] allow this). The corresponding subunits (For ex., subunit A1 corresponds to A2) are placed contiguously to form units (For ex., A1,A2 is a unit) so that we get a list of such units.

The sequence selected for rearrangement is:

[A1,A2]  [B1,B2]  X       (1)


Translating (1) into verse numbers, we get:

[2-30a, 37-45]  [30b, 32-36]   [31]       (2)

We arrive at the reconfigured passage in the next section by rearranging the verses so they are in sequence (2).



4. Daniel 11 Reconfigured

Period 1. The Greek Empire (c. 333BC-164BC) (vs. 2-30a, 37-45)

Chiasmus 1: Alexander the Great (336-323BC) establishes the Greek Empire

2 “Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece.
3 Then a mighty king will arise, who will rule with great power and do as he pleases.
4 After he has arisen, his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.

Chiasmus 2: The Berenice Marriage Alliance Saga (253BC-241BC)

5 “The king of the South will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power.
6a After some years, they will become allies; for the daughter of the king of the South will go to the king of the North to make an alliance, but she will not retain her power, and he and his power will not last.
6b In those days she will be betrayed, together with her royal escort and her offspring, the one who supported her. 7a “One from her family line will arise in his place.
7b He will attack the forces of the king of the North and enter his fortress; he will fight against them and be victorious. 8a He will also seize their gods, their metal images and their valuable articles of silver and gold and carry them off to Egypt.
8b For some years he will leave the king of the North alone. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.

Chiasmus 3: Antiochus III the Great (222-187 BC)

10a His sons will prepare for war and assemble a great army, which will sweep on like an irresistible flood.
10b He shall return and war, even to his fortress. 11 “Then the king of the South will march out in a rage and fight against the king of the North, who will field a large army, but it will be defeated. 12a When the army is swept away, the king of the South will be filled with pride, for he will slaughter many thousands.
12b Yet he will not remain triumphant. 13 For the king of the North will muster another army, larger than the first; and after several years, he will advance with a huge army fully equipped.
14 “In those times many will rise against the king of the South. Those who are violent among your own people will exalt themselves in the fulfillment of the vision, but without success.
15 Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city. The forces of the South will be powerless to resist; even their best troops will not have the strength to stand.
16 The invader will do as he pleases; no one will be able to stand against him. He will establish himself in the Beautiful Land and will have the power to destroy it.
17 He will determine to come with the might of his entire kingdom. He will make an alliance with the king of the South. And he will give him a daughter in marriage in order to overthrow the kingdom, but his plans will not succeed or help him.
18 Then he will turn his attention to the coastlands and will take many of them, but a commander will put an end to his insolence and will turn his insolence back on him. 19 After this, he will turn back toward the fortresses of his own country but will stumble and fall, to be seen no more.
20 “His successor will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor. In a few years, however, he will be destroyed, yet not in anger or in battle.

Chiasmus 4: Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC), the Vile Person

21 “He will be succeeded by a contemptible person who has not been given the honor of royalty, but he will come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue.
22 With the power of a flood will they be swept away before him and will be crushed, and also the prince of the covenant. 23 After coming to an agreement with him, he will act deceitfully, and with only a few people he will rise to power. 24 During a time of peace, he will go into even the richest parts of the realm, and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his forefathers have done, distributing among them plunder, spoil, and goods. He will devise plans against fortresses, but only for a time.
25 “With a large army he will stir up his strength and courage against the king of the South. The king of the South will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him. 26 Those who eat from the king’s provisions will try to destroy him; his army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle. 27 The two kings, with their hearts bent on evil, will sit at the same table and lie to each other, but to no avail, because an end will still come at the appointed time.
28 The king of the North will return to his own country with great wealth, but his heart will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action against it and then return to his own country. 29 “At the appointed time he will invade the South again, but this time the outcome will be different from what it was before. 30a Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart. Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant.
37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all. 38 Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his ancestors he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god, whom he will acknowledge and increase with glory. He will cause them to rule over many, and will carve out land for gain.
40 “In the end, the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood. 41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many will be overthrown, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand. 42 He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission.
44 But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many. 45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will die, and no one will help him.

Period 3 The reign of the Antichrist (2023AD-2027AD) (vs. 30b, 32-36)

30b He will return and show favor to those who forsake the holy covenant.

32 With flattery he will corrupt those who have violated the covenant, but the people who know their God will firmly resist him.
33 “Those who are wise will instruct many, though for a time they will fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered. 34 When they fall, they will receive a little help, and many who are not sincere will join them. 35 Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotless until the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time.
36 “The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place.

Period 2 The First Jewish–Roman War (66AD–73AD) (vs 31)

31 “His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.




5. A Commentary on the Reconfigured Text

We will only comment on Period 1 here in Part 2. Commentary on the other two Periods is deferred to Part 3, which has a reconfiguration of Chapter 12 and parts of Chapter 11.

5.1 Period 1. The Greek Empire (c. 333BC-164BC) (vs. 2-30a, 37-45)

This Period is structured as a series of 4 chiasmi about the Greek Empire. The passages of this Period consist of a long list of historical events, seemingly without structure, but when parsed into chiasmi, they become the story arcs of 4 politically significant Greeks. The last one, Antiochus Epiphanes, is clearly a type of the Antichrist.

Chiasmus 1: Alexander the Great (336-323BC) establishes the Greek Empire

This passage below in 11:2-4 is structured as a chiasmus. The pivot, X [11:3], predicts the coming of Alexander the Great. The subunits, A1 [11:2] and A2 [11:4], are a prologue and epilogue regarding his predecessors and successors respectively.


Subunit A1: Prologue: The Medo-Persian Empire after Cyrus (c. 530BC-333BC) (11:2)

2 “Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece.

The three kings after Cyrus were Cambyses II (530-522 BC), Darius Hystaspes (522-486 BC) and Xerxes the Great (486–465BC). Xerxes the Great, the fourth king (when Cyrus is included), was extraordinarily wealthy, and he used his great wealth to gather a huge army of more than 2 million men from all over his vast empire. He employed this giant army to attack and destroy the Greek city of Athens (480BC), but was ultimately defeated and forced to retreat. Xerxes also deposed the Satanic priestly bloodlines that controlled Babylon, and he destroyed their temples, forcing them to flee (see appendix in [5]). The other Persian kings between the times of Xerxes and Alexander are not mentioned, presumably because it was Xerxes' attack on Greece and on the priests that prompted Alexander's retaliatory invasion of Persia.



Pivot X: Alexander the Great establishes the Greek Empire (c. 333BC-323BC) (11:3)

3 Then a mighty king will arise, who will rule with great power and do as he pleases.

Alexander invaded the Persian Empire beginning in 333BC, and he conquered at will. Under him, the Greek empire grew rapidly, so that it extended from Greece and Egypt in the west to India in the east.



Subunit A2: Epilogue: The Greek Empire is divided into 4 kingdoms (c. 323BC-301BC) (11:4)

4 After he has arisen, his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.

Shortly after he rose to great power ("after he has arisen"), Alexander suddenly died in 323BC, and his generals (the Diadochi) warred over his empire, as he had left behind no clear successor. Alexander's sons were murdered, and after the battle of Ipsus in 301BC, the empire was permanently divided into 4 kingdoms: to the west, Cassander ruled Greece and Macedonia; to the north, Lysimachus ruled Thrace and Asia Minor; to the south, Ptolemy Soter controlled Egypt and Palestine; and to the east Seleucus Nicator controlled Syria, Babylonia and regions farther east up to India.



The rest of the chiasmi of this Period focus on two of the Greek empire's four kingdoms: The kingdom to the North of Judea, which was the Syrian Seleucid kingdom, and the kingdom to the South of Judea, the Egyptian Ptolemaic kingdom.


Chiasmus 2: The Berenice Marriage Alliance Saga (253BC-241BC)

The passage below in 11:5-9 is arranged in the form of a two-unit chiasmus:

A1 11:5 Prologue: King of the North is stronger that the King of the South (c. 305BC)
  B1 11:6a Queen Berenice is deposed (253BC-246BC)
    X 11:6b-7a Ptolemy III takes over from Berenice (246BC)
  B2 11:7b-8a Queen Berenice is avenged (246-241BC)
A2 8b-9 Epilogue: The King of the South is stronger than the King of the North (241BC)


Subunit A1: Prologue: King of the North is stronger that the King of the South (c. 305BC) (11:5)

5 “The king of the South will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power.

Ptolemy I Soter (305-282BC) became the first king of the Egyptian arm of the Greek empire and the founder of the powerful Ptolemaic Kingdom. Seleucus I Nicator (305-281BC), a general under Alexander, was assigned the satrapy of Babylonia in 321BC. He lost the kingdom to Antigonus and became a general under Ptolemy I ("one of his commanders") for a while. Seleucus, with Ptolemy's help, retook wealthy Babylonia in 312BC to become king of the Syrian arm of the Greek empire. Seleucus founded the Seleucid empire, which controlled a region that was larger, wealthier and more powerful than the Ptolemaic kingdom. Relations between these kingdoms later deteriorated and they fought two wars - the First Syrian War (274–271BC) and the Second Syrian War (260–253BC) - over the strategically important region of Coele-Syria, before the events of the next subunit.



Subunit B1: Queen Berenice is deposed (253BC-246BC) (11:6a)

6a After some years, they will become allies; for the daughter of the king of the South will go to the king of the North to make an alliance, but she will not retain her power, and he and his power will not last.


After the Second Syrian War, Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt (283-246 BC) made an attempt at peace by giving his daughter Berenice Syra in marriage (253 BC) to Antiochus II Theos of Syria (261-246BC). According to the marriage covenant, Antiochus had to divorce Laodice, his wife at the time, and his two sons had to renounce all claims to the throne - the aim of the covenant was to unite the two kingdoms under one family. But the alliance did not have the intended effect, because a few years later, when Ptolemy II died in 246BC, Antiochus II divorced Berenice ("she will not retain her power") and took back Laodice, his previous wife. Laodice, however, fearing her husband's fickleness killed him with poison soon after ("he and his power will not last"). A succession dispute broke out after Antiochus II's death, and Laodice declared her son, Seleucus II Callinicus (246-225 BC), king of the Syrian empire.



Pivot X: Ptolemy III takes over from Berenice (246BC) (11:6b-7a)

6b In those days she will be betrayed, together with her royal escort and her offspring, the one who supported her. 7a One from her family line will arise in his place.

Queen Berenice declared her own son king in Antioch and seized control of most of Syria, claiming the regency for her infant son Antiochus III. So Laodice arranged for her supporters to assassinate Berenice and her royal escort, and her son Antiochus, the one who lent legitimacy to her reign ("the one who supported her"). Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes (246–222 BC), rushed into Syria to support his sister; but she was killed before he got to the palace in Antioch. Ptolemy III and Berenice's attendants conspired to prove that Berenice was alive, so that Ptolemy III could seize control of Berenice's dowry. So in this pivot, Ptolemy III takes over from Berenice and her son Antiochus ("his place" in 11:7a) in this struggle for power in Syria (11:7a).



Subunit B2: Berenice is avenged (246-241BC) (11:7b-8a)

7b He will attack the forces of the king of the North and enter his fortress; he will fight against them and be victorious. 8a He will also seize their gods, their metal images and their valuable articles of silver and gold and carry them off to Egypt.

Through the Third Syrian War / Laodicean War (246-241), Ptolemy III, avenged his sister Berenice's death by defeating Seleucus II Callinicus (246-225 BC). He seized Seleukeia, the fortified port of the capital Antioch, and overran the Syrian Empire, even up to Babylon. According to Porphyry, Ptolemy III returned to Egypt with forty thousand talents of silver, precious vessels, and twenty-four hundred images, including Egyptian idols, some of which Cambyses had previously carried from Egypt into Persia.



Subunit A2: Epilogue: The King of the South is stronger than the King of the North (241BC) (11:8b-9)

8b For some years he will leave the king of the North alone. 9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.


This subunit summarizes the aftermath of the war. In exchange for a period of peace, in 241 BC, Ptolemy III was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria - Ptolemy was forced to abandon his plans to permanently occupy Syria because of a revolt at home in Egypt. So Ptolemy, the king of the South, returned victorious from Syria with the spoils of war, and now the King of the South is stronger than the King of the North for a time.




Chiasmus 3: Antiochus III the Great (222-187 BC)

The passage below in 11:10-20 is arranged in the form of a four-unit chiasmus:

A1 11:10a Prologue: Antiochus' predecessor (225-222BC)
  B1 11:10b-12a Antiochus is Defeated (217BC)
    C1 11:12b-13 The Fifth Syrian War: Before Panium (202–200 BC)
      D1 11:14 Antiochus and the Judahites (202–200BC)
        X 11:15 Antiochus wins the Battles at Panium and Sidon (200BC)
      D2 11:16 Antiochus and the Judahites (200–195BC)
    C2 11:17 The Fifth Syrian War: After Panium (200–195BC)
  B2 11:18-19 Antiochus is Defeated (192BC-187BC)
A2 11:20 Epilogue: Antiochus' successor (187-175 BC)


Subunit A1: Prologue: Antiochus' predecessor (225-222BC) (11:10a)

10a His sons will prepare for war and assemble a great army, which will sweep on like an irresistible flood.

The revanchist king Seleucus III Ceraunus (225-223 BC), son of Seleucus II Callinicus, with the aid of his brother Antiochus III the Great, began preparations to retake lost Syrian territory by gathering a large army. Seleucus III was murdered before he could begin the war. But later, at the beginning of the Fourth Syrian War (219–217 BC), a young Antiochus III would prosecute the war with a great army ("irresistible flood") and recover the parts of Syria that had been taken by Ptolemy III Euergetes, even up to Palestine (219-218BC).



Subunit B1: Antiochus is Defeated (217BC) (11:10b-12a)

10b He shall return and war, even to his fortress. 11 “Then the king of the South will march out in a rage and fight against the king of the North, who will field a large army, but it will be defeated. 12a When the army is swept away, the king of the South will be filled with pride, for he will slaughter many thousands.

Antiochus retired to winter at Ptolemais after the victories mentioned in the previous subunit. He returned to continue his campaign in Palestine in 217BC. But he was met at Raphia by the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–204BC), who had been angered by his loss of territory in Coele-Syria. Raphia in Palestine, near Gaza, was the site of a border fortress of Egypt. The Battle of Raphia/Gaza (217 BC), during the Fourth Syrian War (219–217 BC), was one of the largest battles of the ancient world: Ptolemy's army consisted of 70,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry, and 73 elephants, and Antiochus had 62,000 soldiers, 6,000 cavalry, and a 102 elephants.

Ptolemy IV defeated the mighty Syrian army at Raphia. According to Polybius, he massacred about 10,000 of Antiochus' army and took 4,000 captives. After this great victory, Ptolemy became proud and arrogant, to the extent that he went to the temple in Jerusalem to enter the holiest place (3 Maccabees 1,2). Ptolemy retook most of the land in Coele-Syria that Antiochus had annexed.



Subunit C1: The Fifth Syrian War: Before Panium (202–200 BC) (11:12b-13)

12b Yet he will not remain triumphant. 13 For the king of the North will muster another army, larger than the first; and after several years, he will advance with a huge army fully equipped.

But the Egyptian gains were short-lived. Fourteen years after his defeat at Raphia, Antiochus III made war with Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204–180 BC), a mere child, with an even larger, better equipped army of about 70,000 (he had 62,000 at Raphia). This was the beginning of the Fifth Syrian War (202–195BC).



Subunit D1: Antiochus and the Judahites (202–200BC) (11:14)

14 “In those times many will rise against the king of the South. Those who are violent among your own people will exalt themselves in the fulfillment of the vision, but without success.

Antiochus III convinced Philip V of Macedon to join the war to conquer Ptolemy's territories in Asia Minor. Apart from Philip V, rebels from provinces subject to Egypt, from Egypt itself and from Judea rose against young Ptolemy V Epiphanes.

The Judahites were certain that Antiochus would win this war and control Judea, based on this prophecy in Daniel 11 (see vs 16 in the corresponding subunit). So some of the ambitious Judahite warriors attempted to garner military glory ("exalt themselves") by fighting for Antiochus, hoping that they would be rewarded with prestigious positions when Antiochus reigned over Jerusalem ("in the fulfillment of the vision"). But they were disappointed in this, as Antiochus did not want to interfere in the affairs of the Judahites.



Pivot X: Antiochus wins the Battle at Panium and the Siege at Sidon (200BC) (11:15)

15 Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city. The forces of the South will be powerless to resist; even their best troops will not have the strength to stand.

Scopas, the Egyptian general, was defeated by Antiochus the Great at the battle of Panium (200BC). Scopas fled to Sidon, a strongly "fenced city," where he was forced to surrender by a siege induced famine. Ptolemy sent Egypt's choicest armies successively under Eropus, Menocles, and Damoxenus to deliver Scopas, but in vain.

This event of the pivot was a watershed, because the Ptolemaic Kingdom did not recover from its defeat at Panium and ceased to be an independent great power.



Subunit D2: Antiochus and the Judahites (200–195BC) (11:16)

16 The invader will do as he pleases; no one will be able to stand against him. He will establish himself in the Beautiful Land and will have the power to destroy it.


With the Ptolemaic Kingdom weakened, no one in the region could oppose Antiochus the Great (though he was hemmed in by the Romans). He annexed all parts of Coele-Syria and Palestine. He had absolute power ("the power to destroy") over Judea and Jerusalem but did little harm to its people because of their support for his campaign.



Subunit C2: The Fifth Syrian War: After Panium (200–195BC) (11:17)

17 He will determine to come with the might of his entire kingdom. He will make an alliance with the king of the South. And he will give him a daughter in marriage in order to overthrow the kingdom, but his plans will not succeed or help him.


Antiochus III then set his eyes on the Ptolemaic regions of Asia Minor, but the Romans were opposed to any further invasion into Egypt-controlled territories. In an effort to gain control over these lands by other means, Antiochus proposed a marriage treaty with Egypt. He gave his daughter Cleopatra I Syra in marriage to Ptolemy V Epiphanes c. 195BC, with the hope of annexing territory through her influence over the Egyptian king. The marriage treaty ended the Fifth Syrian War (202–195BC), but Antiochus' designs on Egypt did not bear fruit, because Cleopatra favoured her husband over her father.



Subunit B2: Antiochus is Defeated (192BC-187BC) (11:18-19)

18 Then he will turn his attention to the coastlands and will take many of them, but a commander will put an end to his insolence and will turn his insolence back on him.


Antiochus entered Greece ("coastlands") in 192 BC with a 10,000-man army with audacious plans to "liberate" it from the mighty Romans. However, during the Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), the Roman general, Scipio Asiaticus routed Antiochus at Thermopylae in 191 BC, forcing him to withdraw to Asia Minor. The Romans followed up their success by invading Anatolia; their decisive victory at Magnesia ad Sipylum (190 BC) gave them control of Asia Minor.



19 After this, he will turn back toward the fortresses of his own country but will stumble and fall, to be seen no more.


By the Treaty of Apamea (188 BC), Antiochus had to abandon all the country north and west of the Taurus and pay 15,000 talents (450 tonnes) of silver as war indemnity. He retreated to the garrisoned cities left to him, too indebted to attempt any further expansions of his territory. He was killed while pillaging a temple of Bel at Elymaïs, Persia, in 187 BC.



Subunit A2: Epilogue: Antiochus' successor (187-175 BC) (11:20)

20 “His successor will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor. In a few years, however, he will be destroyed, yet not in anger or in battle.


Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175BC), son of Antiochus III the Great, was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to extract as much as possible in taxes and tribute. In an effort to collect money, he sent his minister Heliodorus to Jerusalem to seize the Jewish temple treasury. On his return from Jerusalem, Heliodorus assassinated Seleucus ("not in anger or in battle") and seized the throne for himself (see 2 Maccabees 3).



Chiasmus 4: Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC), the Vile Person

The passage below in 11:21-30a,37-45 is arranged in the form of a three-unit chiasmus:

A1 11:21 Prologue: Antiochus IV Epiphanes' Ascension to the Throne (175BC)
  B1 11:22-24 Antiochus' primary stratagems (175-164BC)
    C1 11:25-27 Despite human scheming, God controls all nations (170-169BC)
      X 11:28-30a Antiochus attacks the "Holy Covenant" (169-168BC)
    C2 11:37-39 Antiochus considers himself king of the gods (175-164BC)
  B2 11:40-43 Antiochus' primary accomplishments (170-168BC)
A2 11:44-45 Epilogue: Death of Antiochus Epiphanes (165-164BC)


This chiasmus goes into some detail on Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and we believe this is because Antiochus is a type of the Antichrist. The chiasmus is structured on themes rather than chronological events, and these themes apply to both Antiochus Epiphanes and the Antichrist. We will point out parallels between the two as we see them in the passage below.


Subunit A1: Prologue: Antiochus IV Epiphanes' Ascension to the Throne (175BC) (11:21)

21 “He will be succeeded by a contemptible person who has not been given the honor of royalty, but he will come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue.


Antiochus Epiphanes - Seleucus Philopator's brother - a vile, contemptible person, on seeing that his brother's throne had been usurped by Heliodorus (vs. 20), made his way to Syria from Athens accompanied by the forces of Eumenes II of Pergamum (Antiochus, who had been a prisoner of Rome as part of a treaty arrangement, had just been freed in exchange for Philopator's son, Demetrius). Eumenes' army stopped at the border of Syria so that they would not be invading the country, and Antiochus continued to the capital with his retinue ("peaceably") . Heliodorus fled on seeing that Antiochus, a potential heir to the Seleucid line, had the backing of Pergamum's forces. The legitimate heir to the throne, Demetrius I Soter - Seleucus Philopator's son - was a hostage in Rome as agreed by the Treaty of Apamea. Antiochus Epiphanes effectively seized the throne from Heliodorus and Demetrius but made an infant son of Seleucus co-regent to appease those faithful to Seleucus. Antiochus murdered his nephew a few years later, and with that, he became the sole Seleucid ruler.

Antiochus came into power through the aid of Pergamum, Satan's capital at that time (Rev. 2:12-13), and the Antichrist will similarly gain power over the world through the Vatican, Satan's headquarters at the start of the Millennial Reign (see appendix in [5]).



Subunit B1: Antiochus' primary stratagems (175-164BC) (11:22-24)

22 With the power of a flood will they be swept away before him and will be crushed, and also the prince of the covenant. 23 After coming to an agreement with him, he will act deceitfully, and with only a few people he will rise to power.


This passage (vs 22-23) points out the strategies Antiochus used to ascend to the throne. Large armies, like Pergamum's, are sometimes called a "flood" (see also Dan 9:26), and so the "power of a flood" refers to the implied threat of invasion that comes with the presence of Pergamum's army at the borders of Syria. Prince Demetrius is called the "prince of the covenant/treaty", because he was held hostage by Rome as part of the Treaty of Apamea. So Antiochus swept away Heliodorus, his supporters and Demetrius and took the throne using deceit and a threat of invasion. Once on the throne, he used subterfuge and murder to acquire absolute power. Antiochus became emperor with a small band of co-conspirators and not a large invading army

Like Antiochus, the Antichrist will grab power using deception (see Dan. 8:23,24), but he will be backed by the Vatican's powerful army, the Beast of Rev 13,17.



24a During a time of peace, he will go into even the richest parts of the realm, and he shall do what neither his fathers nor his forefathers have done, distributing among them plunder, spoil, and goods.

In times of peace, Antiochus went into provinces of his realm, even its richest, and used some of his wealth and plunder to buy the allegiance of his people: he distributed money to commoners in the streets of Antioch; according to Polybius, Antiochus gave a gold piece to every Greek citizen in Naucratis, Egypt. Neither his father nor grandfather could do this because of their large debts to Rome by the Treaty of Apamea (1 Maccabees 3:30).

The Antichrist will also be generous to his supporters around the world, with the wealth stolen from their nations (see vs 30b in Part 3).



24b He will devise plans against fortresses, but only for a time.

For a while, Antiochus made preparations to attack some of the strongest fortresses in Egypt, particularly the capital in Alexandria, but was forced to withdraw (see vs 30).

The Antichrist and Beast will make plans against the New Israel, but their assault will be thwarted (Ezekiel 39).



Subunit C1: Despite human scheming, God controls all nations (170-169BC) (11:25-27)

25 “With a large army he will stir up his strength and courage against the king of the South. The king of the South will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him.

The guardians of young Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) of Egypt, in an effort to retake Coele-Syria, started war preparations against Syria in 170 BC - this was the beginning of the Sixth Syrian War (170–168 BC). However, in 169 BC, Antiochus Epiphanes launched an unexpected pre-emptive strike against Egypt with an overwhelming multitude. He defeated Ptolemy Philometor's army to seize the strategically important town of Pelusium. and pursued the Egyptians. After this defeat, two prominent Ptolemaic generals, Comanus and Cineas, took control of the Egyptian government in a military coup ("he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him").



26 Those who eat from the king’s provisions will try to destroy him; his army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle.

Ptolemy Philometor went out to meet Antiochus Epiphanes, and they negotiated a friendship agreement, which in effect reduced Egypt to a vassal state of Syria. Seeing Ptolemy Philometor was controlled by Antiochus, Comanus and Cineas made Philometer's brother Ptolemy VIII Physcon ("those who eat from the kings provisions") king in Alexandria. Enraged that his plan to rule Egypt had failed, Antiochus extended his campaign into the heart of Egypt, defeating the large Egyptian army to conquer Memphis. He also attacked Alexandria, but he was unable to mount an effective siege against the capital city.



27a The two kings, with their hearts bent on evil, will sit at the same table and lie to each other,

Antiochus installed Ptolemy VI Philometor in Memphis and negotiated another treaty of friendship with him (Philometer was Antiochus' nephew through the marriage alliance of vs 17, and family "sits at the same table"). But both parties behaved deceitfully: by the treaty, Antiochus reduced Ptolemy to a Seleucid client; and within two months Ptolemy VI repudiated the treaty. Ptolemy VI reconciled with his brother, so that the two became co-regents again along with their sister Cleopatra II in Alexandria.



27b but to no avail, because an end will still come at the appointed time.

All the verses in this subunit (vs 25-27) mention some sort of intrigue, deceit or treachery, and this last passage of the subunit makes its point. In spite of all the clever scheming by the leadership of the two nations, the results will be as and when ordained by God and as laid out in prophecy. For events in the history of nations are appointed by God and will occur at the time appointed by God. The predictions of this prophecy are excerpts from the "Book of Truth" (Dan 10:21), indicating that God has made similar predictions for all nations for all times.

The period of the Antichrist's reign through the Beast will also be a time of intrigue, deceit and treachery, for these are the ways of Satan and his fallen angels (see Daniel 8:25). But ultimately, God is in control of all things.



Pivot X: Antiochus attacks the "Holy Covenant" (169-168BC) (11:28-30a)

28 The king of the North will return to his own country with great wealth, but his heart will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action against it and then return to his own country.

After his victories in Egypt, Antiochus IV Epiphanes returned with immense wealth from his plunder of the country (Sep. 169BC). On the way back to Syria, Antiochus attacked Jerusalem (the land of the "holy covenant"). He killed large numbers of its residents, and plundered and desecrated the temple (see 1 Maccabees 1:19-28).



29 “At the appointed time he will invade the South again, but this time the outcome will be different from what it was before. 30a Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart. Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant.

At the time appointed by God, in 168BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes invaded Egypt up to Memphis a second time, because the Egyptians violated the treaty of the previous year by recruiting new troops. But this time the Romans opposed his plans. At Eleusis, on the outskirts of the capital, Alexandria, he met Popilius Laenas, who offered the king an ultimatum from the Senate: he must evacuate Egypt and Cyprus immediately. Antiochus begged to have time to consider but Popilius drew a circle round him - a line in the sand - with his cane and told him to decide before he stepped outside it. Antiochus chose to obey the Roman ultimatum, for he dared not defy the Romans after the humiliation they had visited upon his forefathers (vs 18,19). The "Day of Eleusis" ended the Sixth Syrian War and Antiochus' hopes of conquering Egyptian territory

On the way back from this humiliation in Egypt in 168BC, hearing of a rebellion in Judea, Antiochus vented his wrath on the Judahites and Jerusalem (the second attack after the one in vs 28). He killed many tens of thousands of Judahites, took many into slavery and desecrated the temple (2 Maccabees 5:11-17).

The Antichrist will attack and devastate the people of the New "Holy Covenant", faithful Christians around the world (Rev. 13).



Subunit C2: Antiochus considers himself king of the gods (175-164BC) (11:37-39)

37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all.

Antiochus believed that he was a manifestation of the king of the Greek gods, Zeus (Epiphanus means "god manifest"), and so considered himself superior to all other Greek gods ("the gods of his ancestors").

The Mesopotamian goddess Nanaya, a goddess of love and sensuality, may be the "one desired by women" - many seals with the inscription "servant of Nanaya" have been found, and they appear to have belonged to women. Antiochus showed a complete disregard for Nanaya when he attacked a temple in Persia dedicated to the goddess.



38 Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his ancestors he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39a He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god, whom he will acknowledge and increase with glory.

Antiochus honoured Jupiter, the Roman equivalent ("a god unknown to his ancestors") of the Greek god Zeus, for Antiochus believed himself to be an incarnation of Jupiter/Zeus (he had spent some time in Rome as prisoner, during which he developed a taste for Roman culture and religion). Jupiter was considered capable of expanding a nation ("god of fortresses"), and so Antiochus must have honoured Jupiter with lavish gifts after winning in battle, in keeping with the Roman practice of the time (verse 38 and 39a have equivalent meanings, so they form a parallel structure).



39b He will cause them to rule over many, and will carve out land for gain.

Through his victories, Antiochus extended the dominion of the gods (fallen angels) he honoured ("cause them to rule over many", "carve out land"), and he was rewarded for his efforts with wealth and power ("for gain").

This subunit is regarding Antiochus' religion, which serves as a type of the Antichrist's religion. Like Antiochus, the Antichrist will exalt himself above all gods (2 Thess. 2:4, Dan 8:25) and steer worship to another god: Satan, the king of the fallen gods (Rev. 13:4,11-15). He will take tyrannical control over the whole world on behalf of Satan and his fallen angels (Rev 13).



Subunit B2: Antiochus' primary accomplishments (170-168BC) (11:40-43)

This subunit B2 [11:40-43] is itself structured as a single-unit chiasmus. The pivot [11:41] is regarding Antiochus' relationship with Judea and its neighbours. The subunits summarize the Sixth Syrian War: the first subunit [11:40] is regarding Antiochus' military push into Egypt, and the second subunit [11:42-43] details the rewards of his venture.


40 “In the end, the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood.

The Egyptians were preparing to invade Syria, when Antiochus Epiphanes pre-emptively retaliated with a mighty army and defeated the Ptolemaic army. He invaded Egypt and swept through many smaller nations on his path; his navy attacked Cyprus along the coast.

The phrase "In the end" indicates that this subunit [vs 40-43] is a summary of Antiochus Epiphanes' reign.



41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many will be overthrown, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand.


Antiochus raided and desecrated the temple in Jerusalem twice and established control over Judea. He persecuted the Judahites, slaughtering a great number of them and taking many into slavery.

Antiochus deposed many leaders, but those of Edom, Moab and Ammon, neighbours of Israel, were spared, perhaps because they supported Syria against Judea (see also 1 Maccabees 3:10, 4:61, 5:1-8).

The Antichrist will similarly denigrate Christianity and persecute Christians, and he will reward the leaders who support him in his war against Christianity (the Judahites of this period are a type of the Christians during the reign of the Beast).



42 He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission

Antiochus established his dominion over the many countries he passed through, and although he did not conquer all of Egypt, he controlled significant regions of that great nation. He took back with him large quantities of Egyptian treasures as war booty. The Libyans and the Cushites/Ethiopians, were neighbours of Egypt and allied to it, and he apparently took many of them as slaves ("in submission"). This passage is regarding the results of Antiochus' exploits - he acquires great power, enormous wealth and many slaves.

The Antichrist will similarly control the nations of the world. He will acquire great wealth and power and will enslave many (see Rev 13).



Subunit A2: Epilogue: Death of Antiochus Epiphanes (165-164BC) (11:44-45)

44 But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many

Reports of rebellion by Armenians to the north and attacks by the Parthians from the east worried him, so he led the main Seleucid army on a campaign to the eastern part of his empire, where he had some initial success.



45a He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain.

Antiochus, being busy on the eastern front, designated his commander Lysias to quell the rebellion in Judea. The Syrians pitched their battle tents at Emmaus, between the Mediterranean and Dead seas, in the hill country close to Jerusalem. They were preparing for an assault on Judea when they were defeated by guerilla attacks on the camp by the Maccabees in the Battle of Emmaus (165BC) (1 Maccabees 3:38–4:25, 2 Maccabees 8:8-28). Antiochus Epiphanes was humiliated at the defeat of his army by the small Judean province.



45b Yet he will die, and no one will help him.

Accounts of Antiochus' death vary widely, but they agree in that he died, in Persia, in ignominy and misery and without succour (see 2 Maccabees 9:5–9).

The Antichrist's end will mirror that of Antiochus. The Antichrist will similarly send the Beast army for a final assault on the New Israel. The Beast army will prepare for this battle at the mountains outside the New Israel, between two rivers (Joel 2:20). But the Beast and the Antichrist will be humiliatingly defeated and killed with divine assistance (see Rev. 19:19-20, Ezekiel 39).



5.2 Period 3. The reign of the Antichrist (2023AD-2027AD) (vs. 30b, 32-36)

30b He will return and show favor to those who forsake the holy covenant.

32 With flattery he will corrupt those who have violated the covenant, but the people who know their God will firmly resist him.
33 “Those who are wise will instruct many, though for a time they will fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered. 34 When they fall, they will receive a little help, and many who are not sincere will join them. 35 Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotless until the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time.
36 “The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place.

We will show that this passage forms a cryptochiasmus with chapter 12, and comment on it in our paper on Daniel 12 in Part 3.



5.3 Period 2 The First Jewish–Roman War (66AD–73AD) (vs 31)

31 “His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.

We will show that this passage forms a cryptochiasmus with chapter 12, and comment on it in our paper on Daniel 12 in Part 3.





Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

References

[1] A Definition of Cryptochiasmus
[2] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of "The 70 Weeks Of Daniel"
[3] First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) by Wikipedia.
[4] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Revelation 12
[5] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Daniel 8
[6] The Syrian wars by Wikipedia
[7] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Isaiah 60-62