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An Exegesis Of Daniel 10-12 Based On A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of The Text.
Part 1: Daniel 11

Kuruvilla Thomas K.
Bangalore (21/3/2019)


Abstract

This study treats Daniel 11 as a "Functional Chiasmus" in order to arrive at a coherent reconfiguration of the text. Text that is arranged in the form of a functional chiasmus must be rearranged based on certain logical principles to be correctly interpreted. A functional chiasmus is a new concept; see definition here [1] .

This study also contains an exegesis of the rearranged text. If you wish to skip the technicalities of a chiastic parse, you may read starting from Part 4 of the Discussion section, which has the reconfigured text.




Daniel 11 and 12 Timeline

Fig. 1


Introduction

Daniel 11 is one of the longest, most detailed, and most complex passages in the Bible. Although scholars have been able to convincingly interpret most of this chapter, some passages towards the end of the chapter have remained under a cloud of confusion because at some point they appear to move back and forth between prophecy of the time of ancient Greece or Rome and of the "end times". We will show that these issues can be resolved with a chiastic restructuring of the text. We also will show that parts of this passage form a functional chiasmus with chapter 12, so the two chapters are intimately linked.


Discussion

1. Presuppositions

The idea behind this parse that this passage contains the interwoven prophecies of 3 periods.
  1. The period from Cyrus the Great of Medo-Persia (c. 550BC) to Antiochus Epiphanes of Greece's Seleucid Empire (c. 164BC). Most of the chapter is devoted to this period.
  2. The destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans (c. 70AD) during the The First Jewish–Roman War (circa 66AD–74AD)
  3. The reign of the Antichrist (c. 2000AD)

2. Parsing the chiasmus

We will be using the NIV Bible for this parse.

Parsing this chiasmus involves dividing portions of the text into three categories as above. We will call the period from Cyrus to Antiochus Epiphanes Period 1, the destruction of Jerusalem Period 2 and the time of the Antichrist Period 3

Categorizing vs 2-45

Vs 2-30a belong to Period 1. This passage starts with Cyrus of the Medo-Persian empire and continues with a detailed prophecy of the Kings to the North and South of Israel - The Syrian and Egyptian sections of the Greek Empire. The passage ends with the exploits of Antiochus Epiphanes.

Vs 30b appears to belong to Period 3. The only relevant holy covenant extant at the time of the Antichrist would be the Christian covenant or Christianity.

Vs 31 belongs to Period 2. This is the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem c 70AD and the abomination is the Roman army bent on sacking Jerusalem.

Vs 32-39 belong to Period 3. More information on the Antichrist and his end times reign.

Vs 40-45 belong to Period 1. A return to the story of the Kings of the North and South.



Original text

We color-code the chiastic units of the original text (NIV) below for easy visual identification using: red Period 1, blue for Period 2, green Period 3. We will elide most of the verses between 2-30 here for compactness.

Chapter 11 2 “Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and then a fourth, who will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece. 3 Then a mighty king will arise, who will rule with great power and do as he pleases. 4 After he has arisen, his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.
5 “The king of the South will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power.
...
(Vs 6-24 omitted here)
...
25 “With a large army he will stir up his strength and courage against the king of the South. The king of the South will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him. 26 Those who eat from the king’s provisions will try to destroy him; his army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle. 27 The two kings, with their hearts bent on evil, will sit at the same table and lie to each other, but to no avail, because an end will still come at the appointed time. 28 The king of the North will return to his own country with great wealth, but his heart will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action against it and then return to his own country.
29 “At the appointed time he will invade the South again, but this time the outcome will be different from what it was before. 30a Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart.

30b Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant. He will return and show favor to those who forsake the holy covenant.
31 “His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.
32 With flattery he will corrupt those who have violated the covenant, but the people who know their God will firmly resist him.
33 “Those who are wise will instruct many, though for a time they will fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered. 34 When they fall, they will receive a little help, and many who are not sincere will join them. 35 Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotless until the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time.
36 “The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place. 37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all. 38 Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his ancestors he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god and will greatly honor those who acknowledge him. He will make them rulers over many people and will distribute the land at a price.
40 “At the time of the end the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood. 41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many countries will fall, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand. 42 He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission. 44 But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many. 45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will come to his end, and no one will help him.



3. Build the reconfigured text

From this parse, it appears that verses 2-45 form a Functional chiasmus as below:

A1   2-30a Period 1. Medo-Persian empire...Kings of the North and South.
  B1   30b Period 3. Antichrist against the holy covenant (Christians)
    X   31 Period 2. End of sacrifice...abomination that causes desolation.
  B2   32-39 Period 3. Antichrist's reign.
A2   40-45 Period 1. More on the Kings of the North and South.


We now reconstruct the phrases in the right order based on the chiastic structure above and based on the ordering rules of a functional chiasmus [1].

We usually lead with tbe pivot point but for this reconstruction we will add the central pivot point 'X' at the end for reasons that will be clear when we get to chapter 12(The rules of Functional Chiasmus allow this). The corresponding subunits (For example; subunit A1 corresponds to A2) are placed contiguously to form units (For example, A1,A2 is a unit ) so that we get a list of such units.

The sequence selected for rearrangement is:

[A1,A2]  [B1,B2]  X       (1)


Translating (1) into verse numbers, we get:

[2-30a, 40-45]  [30b, 32-39]   31       (2)

We arrive at the reconfigured passage in the next section by rearranging the verses so they are in sequence (2).



4. Daniel 11 Reconfigured

Period 1. Cyrus of Medo-Persia (c. 550BC) to Antiochus Epiphanes of Greece (c. 164BC). (vs. 2-30a, 40-45)

2 “Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and then a fourth, who will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece. 3 Then a mighty king will arise, who will rule with great power and do as he pleases. 4 After he has arisen, his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.
5 “The king of the South will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power.
...
(Vs 6-24 omitted here)
...
25 “With a large army he will stir up his strength and courage against the king of the South. The king of the South will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him. 26 Those who eat from the king’s provisions will try to destroy him; his army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle. 27 The two kings, with their hearts bent on evil, will sit at the same table and lie to each other, but to no avail, because an end will still come at the appointed time. 28 The king of the North will return to his own country with great wealth, but his heart will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action against it and then return to his own country.
29 “At the appointed time he will invade the South again, but this time the outcome will be different from what it was before. 30a Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart.

40 “At the time of the end the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships. He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood. 41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many countries will fall, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand. 42 He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission. 44 But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many. 45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will come to his end, and no one will help him.

Period 3 The reign of the Antichrist (circa 2000AD) (vs. 30b, 32-39)

30b Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant. He will return and show favor to those who forsake the holy covenant.

32 With flattery he will corrupt those who have violated the covenant, but the people who know their God will firmly resist him.
33 “Those who are wise will instruct many, though for a time they will fall by the sword or be burned or captured or plundered. 34 When they fall, they will receive a little help, and many who are not sincere will join them. 35 Some of the wise will stumble, so that they may be refined, purified and made spotless until the time of the end, for it will still come at the appointed time.
36 “The king will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods. He will be successful until the time of wrath is completed, for what has been determined must take place. 37 He will show no regard for the gods of his ancestors or for the one desired by women, nor will he regard any god, but will exalt himself above them all. 38 Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his ancestors he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god and will greatly honor those who acknowledge him. He will make them rulers over many people and will distribute the land at a price.

Period 2 The Destruction of Jerusalem (c. 70AD) during the First Jewish–Roman War (circa 66AD–74AD) (vs 31)

31 “His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.




5. An exegesis of the reconfigured text.

A discussion of each period of the reconfigured text.

5.1 Period 1. Cyrus of Medo-Persia (c. 550BC) to Antiochus Epiphanes of Greece (c. 164BC). (vs. 2-30a, 40-45)

5.1.1 The Medo-Persian empire after Cyrus. (c. 530BC-334BC)

2 “Now then, I tell you the truth: Three more kings will arise in Persia, and then a fourth, who will be far richer than all the others. When he has gained power by his wealth, he will stir up everyone against the kingdom of Greece.


The three kings after Cyrus were Cambyses (530-522 BC) , Pseudo-Smerdis (522 BC), and Darius Hystaspes (522-486 BC). Then followed the wealthy and mighty Xerxes(486–465BC) who attacked and destroyed the Greek city of Athens (480BC) with a vast army but was ultimately defeated and forced to retreat. After this Persia was no longer politically significant and so the other kings between the times of Xerxes and Alexander are not mentioned.



5.1.2 Alexander the Great and the establishment of Hellenistic Syria and Egypt.(c. 334BC-280BC)

3 Then a mighty king will arise, who will rule with great power and do as he pleases. 4 After he has arisen, his empire will be broken up and parceled out toward the four winds of heaven. It will not go to his descendants, nor will it have the power he exercised, because his empire will be uprooted and given to others.


Alexander invaded Persia in 334BC but, since he has no suitable heirs, his empire is divided among four of his generals who formed the Greek Diadochi on his death in 323BC.

The rest of the verses on this period centre on two of these four kingdoms: The kingdom North of Israel, the Syrian empire and the Kingdom to the South of Israel, the Egyptian empire. Because of its location between these two empires, Israel suffered the misery of frequent invasions during the time of these constantly warring empires.



5 “The king of the South will become strong, but one of his commanders will become even stronger than he and will rule his own kingdom with great power.


Ptolemy I Soter (305-282BC), became the first king of the Egyptian arm of Greece and the founder of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. Seleucus I Nicator(304-281BC), originally a general under Alexander became king of the larger Syrian arm of the Greek empire and the founder of the Seleucid empire. (We take the phrase "one of his commanders will become even stronger than he" to mean one of Alexander's generals will become stronger that the King of the South.)



5.1.3 The failed Berenice marriage alliance after the Second Syrian war (c. 253-246BC)

6 After some years, they will become allies. The daughter of the king of the South will go to the king of the North to make an alliance, but she will not retain her power, and he and his power will not last. In those days she will be betrayed, together with her royal escort and her father and the one who supported her.


There is a gap of about 30 years ("After some years") in this prophecy during which the First and Second Syrian wars take place. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283-246 BC) is now king of Egypt and Antiochus II Theos (261-246 BC) is king of Syria.

After the Second Syrian war, an attempt was made at peace through a marriage alliance (253 BC) between Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Antiochus II Theos who divorced his wife at the time, Laodice. The alliance did not have the intended effect. A few years later, Ptolemy II Philadelphus died and Antiochus II Theos took back his previous wife Laodice. Laodice killed Antiochus II Theos, Berenice and Berenice's son, and then raised her own son, Seleucus II Callinicus, to the throne.



5.1.4 The Third Syrian War or the Laodicean War - The war to avenge Berenice's Death. (246–241 BC)

7 One from her family line will arise to take her place. He will attack the forces of the king of the North and enter his fortress; he will fight against them and be victorious. 8 He will also seize their gods, their metal images and their valuable articles of silver and gold and carry them off to Egypt. For some years he will leave the king of the North alone.


Ptolemy III Euergetes (246–222 BC), brother of Berenice, avenged her death by defeating Seleucus II Callinicus (246-225 BC), overrunning Syria, even its fortified cities, all the way to the Tigris. Ptolemy III Euergetes returned with forty thousand talents of silver, precious vessels, and twenty-four hundred images, including Egyptian idols, which Cambyses had carried from Egypt into Persia. In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy III Euergetes was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria.



[(KJV)9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.]


Verse 9 appears to be a summary of verses 7 and 8. That is, Ptolemy III Euergetes the king of the South will enter the North and return with with war booty.



5.1.5 Antiochus III the Great (222-187 BC)

Fourth Syrian War (219–217 BC) and the Battle of Raphia (217 BC)

10 His sons will prepare for war and assemble a great army, which will sweep on like an irresistible flood and carry the battle as far as his fortress.


The two sons of Seleucus II Callinicus, Seleucus Ceraunus(225-223 BC) and Antiochus III the Great (222-187 BC) prepare for war with Egypt by gathering a mighty army. Seleucus Ceraunus dies and so Antiochus III the Great prosecutes the war against Ptolemy IV Philopator (221–204 BC) by himself until he had recovered all the parts of Syria subjugated by Ptolemy III Euergetes. The war culminated at the battle at the fortress of Raphia, one of the largest battles of the ancient world.



11 “Then the king of the South will march out in a rage and fight against the king of the North, who will raise a large army, but it will be defeated. 12 When the army is carried off, the king of the South will be filled with pride and will slaughter many thousands, yet he will not remain triumphant.


Ptolemy IV Philopator, in a rage at having lost territory, defeated the mighty army of Antiochus the Great at the battle of Raphia and got back some of his lost territory. Ptolemy massacred about 10,000 of Antiochus' army and took 4,000 captives but his victory will be short-lived as we will see in the next verse.



Fifth Syrian War (202–195 BC).

13 For the king of the North will muster another army, larger than the first; and after several years, he will advance with a huge army fully equipped.


Fourteen years after his defeat at Raphia, Antiochus the Great made war with Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204–181 BC), a mere child, with an even larger army of about 70,000. He convinced Philip V of Macedon to join the war to conquer the Ptolemies' territories in Asia Minor.



14 “In those times many will rise against the king of the South. Those who are violent among your own people will rebel in fulfillment of the vision, but without success.


Apart from Philip V of Macedon there were rebels from Egypt itself and from Judea who rose to fight against Ptolemy V Epiphanes in support of Antiochus the Great. The Judean rebels acted as predicted by this prophecy but their efforts did not get them independence from Egypt.



Fifth Syrian War: Battle of Panium (200BC).

15 Then the king of the North will come and build up siege ramps and will capture a fortified city. The forces of the South will be powerless to resist; even their best troops will not have the strength to stand.


Scopas, the Egyptian general, met Antiochus the Great at the battle of Panium and was defeated, and fled to Sidon, a strongly "fenced city," where he was forced to surrender. Egypt's choicest army was sent under Eropus, Menocles, and Damoxenus, to deliver Scopas, but in vain.



16 The invader will do as he pleases; no one will be able to stand against him. He will establish himself in the Beautiful Land and will have the power to destroy it.


The Ptolemaic Kingdom never recovered from its defeat at Panium and ceased to be an independent great power and so there is no one in the region who could oppose Antiochus the Great. He had complete control over Judea and Jerusalem but does not harm its people because of their support for his campaign.



Fifth Syrian War : The Cleopatra alliance (195 BC).

17 He will determine to come with the might of his entire kingdom and will make an alliance with the king of the South. And he will give him a daughter in marriage in order to overthrow the kingdom, but his plans will not succeed or help him.


Antiochus the Great then set his eyes on the Ptolemaic regions of Asia Minor but his plans were opposed by the Romans. So in an effort to gain total control of Egypt by cunning, he gave his daughter Cleopatra I Syra in marriage to Ptolemy V Epiphanes c. 195 BC. The plan did not work however because Cleopatra favoured her husband over her father.



Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC) and death of Antiochus the Great (187 BC)

18 Then he will turn his attention to the coastlands and will take many of them, but a commander will put an end to his insolence and will turn his insolence back on him.


In 192 BC Antiochus invaded Greece with a 10,000-man army. In 191 BC, however, the Romans routed him at Thermopylae, forcing him to withdraw to Asia Minor. The Romans followed up their success by invading Anatolia, and their decisive victory at Magnesia ad Sipylum (190 BC) gave them control of Asia Minor.



19 After this, he will turn back toward the fortresses of his own country but will stumble and fall, to be seen no more.


By the Treaty of Apamea (188 BC) Antiochus had to abandon all the country north and west of the Taurus and defray the expenses of the war. He garrisoned the cities left to him. He was killed while pillaging a temple of Bel at Elymaïs, Persia, in 187 BC.



5.1.6 Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 BC) and the tax collector.

20 “His successor will send out a tax collector to maintain the royal splendor. In a few years, however, he will be destroyed, yet not in anger or in battle.


Seleucus IV Philopator, son of Antiochus III the Great, was compelled by financial necessities, created in part by the heavy war-indemnity exacted by Rome, to pursue an ambitious policy. In an effort to collect money to pay the Romans, he sent his minister Heliodorus to Jerusalem to seize the Jewish temple treasury. On his return from Jerusalem, Heliodorus assassinated Seleucus, and seized the throne for himself



5.1.7 Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC) the vile person.

Antiochus IV Epiphanes seizes power

21 “He will be succeeded by a contemptible person who has not been given the honor of royalty. He will invade the kingdom when its people feel secure, and he will seize it through intrigue. .


As we have seen in the previous verse, Seleucus IV Philopator was assassinated by the usurper Heliodorus, his tax collector, in 175 BC. But Seleucus Philopator's brother, Antiochus Epiphanes, a vile tyrant, in turn ousted Heliodorus. Seleucus Philopator's legitimate heir Demetrius I Soter was a hostage in Rome as part of a treaty arrangement (Treaty of Apamea). So Antiochus Epiphanes seized the throne for himself, proclaiming himself co-regent with another son of Seleucus, an infant named Antiochus whom he then murdered a few years later.



Sixth Syrian War (170–168 BC): First and Second battles - 169 BC

[(KJV) 22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant].


The guardians of young Ptolemy VI Philometor(180-176 BC), for reasons that are unclear, started war preparations against Egypt in 170 BC. But, in 169 BC, Antiochus Epiphanes launched a preemptive strike with a mighty army against Egypt defeating Ptolemy VI Philometor and seizing the important strategic town of Pelusium. ( Ptolemy VI Philometor was the son of Cleopatra and Ptolemy V Epiphanes whose marriage was the basis of covenant between Egypt and Syria, so Ptolemy VI Philometor is the prince of the covenant).



23 After coming to an agreement with him, he will act deceitfully, and with only a few people he will rise to power.


After the battle, using the cover of a peace treaty whereby he promised to help his young nephew Ptolemy rule Egypt, Antiochus Epiphanes manages to gain effective control of Egypt with a few people - as opposed to a might army. (Ptolemy VI Philometor was the son Antiochus Ephiphanes' sister Cleaopatra who was given in marriage to the Egyptian King.)



24 When the richest provinces feel secure, he will invade them and will achieve what neither his fathers nor his forefathers did. He will distribute plunder, loot and wealth among his followers. He will plot the overthrow of fortresses—but only for a time.


Antiochus Epiphanes' plan to rule Egypt through his nephew Ptolemy VI Philometor did not go as planned. In anger he invaded Egypt for a second time overrunning it up to Alexandria and plundering some of the richest provinces of Egypt. He was unable to mount an effective siege against Alexandria, so he had to retreat. None of his forefathers, kings of Syria, had been able to invade Egyptian territory to this extent.




Sixth Syrian War (170–168 BC): A reprise of the First and Second battles - 169 BC

25 “With a large army he will stir up his strength and courage against the king of the South. The king of the South will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to stand because of the plots devised against him.


In the first attack, Antiochus IV Epiphanes "entered Egypt with an overwhelming multitude, with chariots, elephants, and cavalry" . Subsequently, the Egyptians chose Ptolemy VIII Physcon as ruler because they saw that Ptolemy VI Philometor was controlled by Antiochus Epiphanes.



26 Those who eat from the king’s provisions will try to destroy him; his army will be swept away, and many will fall in battle.


Ptolemy VI Philometor not only had to cope with the invader, but also with advisers who wanted to give power to his sister-wife Cleopatra II and his brother Ptolemy VIII Physcon.



27 The two kings, with their hearts bent on evil, will sit at the same table and lie to each other, but to no avail, because an end will still come at the appointed time.


This may be an extension of the previous verse and so refer to Ptolemy VI Philometor and his brother, Ptolemy VIII Physcon, who may sit at the same table as brothers but with plans to take control of Egypt for themselves.



28 The king of the North will return to his own country with great wealth, but his heart will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action against it and then return to his own country.


After his second attack on Egypt, Antiochus IV Epiphanes returned with great wealth from Egypt. On the way back to his own country, he attacked Jerusalem, killing its residents in large numbers and defiling the temple.



Sixth Syrian War (170–168 BC): The third battle - 168 BC

29 “At the appointed time he will invade the South again, but this time the outcome will be different from what it was before. 30a Ships of the western coastlands will oppose him, and he will lose heart. Then he will turn back


He returned to fight a third time but this time the Romans opposed him. At Eleusis, on the outskirts of the capital, he met Popilius Laenas, who offered the king an ultimatum from the Senate: he must evacuate Egypt and Cyprus immediately. Antiochus begged to have time to consider but Popilius drew a circle round him in the sand with his cane and told him to decide before he stepped outside it. Antiochus chose to obey the Roman ultimatum. The "Day of Eleusis" ended the Sixth Syrian War and Antiochus' hopes of conquering Egyptian territory



Recapitulation of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes.

We often find in Biblical functional chiasmi a recapitulation or repeat of information with a few more details added in (see "the woman in the wilderness" in our paper on Rev. 12 for instance). Verses 40-43 appear to be a list of highlights of Antiochus Epiphanes reign -not in time sequence. Note that vs 40-43 are arranged in the form of a regular chiasmus (no rearrangement required) with the text "He will also invade the Beautiful Land" forming the central pivot point. This pivot point, in a way, the central point of the whole chapter: to show how Jerusalem was affected by the actions of these mighty empires.


40 “At the time of the end the king of the South will engage him in battle, and the king of the North will storm out against him with chariots and cavalry and a great fleet of ships.He will invade many countries and sweep through them like a flood.


The Egyptians threaten war and, in retaliation, Antiochus Epiphanes defeats them with a mighty army and navy. He will also conquer many other countries with his large army. The phrase "At the time of the end" may refer to a declining Seleucid Empire after Antiochus the Great is defeated by the Romans c. 190BC.



41 He will also invade the Beautiful Land. Many countries will fall, but Edom, Moab and the leaders of Ammon will be delivered from his hand.


Antiochus raided the temple in Jerusalem, stealing its treasures, setting up an altar to Zeus, and sacrificing swine on the altar. When the Jews expressed their outrage over the profaning of the temple, Antiochus responded by slaughtering a great number of the Jews and selling others into slavery. Edom, Moab and Ammon are spared perhaps because they.were allies previously.



42 He will extend his power over many countries; Egypt will not escape. 43 He will gain control of the treasures of gold and silver and all the riches of Egypt, with the Libyans and Cushites in submission


He established his dominance over many countries, including parts of Egypt and took with him large quantities of Egyptian treasures as war booty. The Libyans and the Cushites or Ethiopians are mentioned here probably because they were neighbours of Egypt and intimately linked to it.



The death of Antiochus Epiphanes

44 But reports from the east and the north will alarm him, and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many


Reports of attacks by Armenians to the north the Parthians from the east worried him, so he led the main Seleucid army on a campaign to the eastern part of his empire.



45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain. Yet he will come to his end, and no one will help him.


Because he was busy in the eastern part of his empire, Antiochus sent his commander, Lysias, to quell the rebellion in Judea. Lysias pitched his battle tents between the Mediterranean and Dead seas near mountainous Judea, preparing to attack Judea, but he was defeated by the guerilla attacks of the Maccabbean revolt. Antiochus Epiphanes was humiliated at the defeat of his mighty army by the small Judean province. According to the scroll of Antiochus, when Antiochus heard that his army had been defeated in Judea, he boarded a ship and fled to the coastal cities. Wherever he went the people rebelled and called him "The Fugitive," so he drowned himself in the sea.



5.2 Period 3 The reign of the Antichrist (circa 2000AD) (vs. 30b, 32-39)

30b Then he will turn back and vent his fury against the holy covenant. He will return and show favor to those who forsake the holy covenant.

...
...
...
38 Instead of them, he will honor a god of fortresses; a god unknown to his ancestors he will honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and costly gifts. 39 He will attack the mightiest fortresses with the help of a foreign god and will greatly honor those who acknowledge him. He will make them rulers over many people and will distribute the land at a price.

We will show that this passage is part of a functional Chiasmus with chapter 12, so will conduct a detailed discussion of this passage in our paper on Daniel 12.



5.3 Period 2 The Destruction of Jerusalem (c. 70AD) during the First Jewish–Roman War (circa 66AD–74AD) (vs 31)

31 “His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple fortress and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation.

We will show that this passage is part of a functional Chiasmus with chapter 12, so will conduct a detailed discussion of this passage in our paper on Daniel 12.




Conclusion

The main idea this paper introduces is a chiastic reconstruction of the text that shows that the passage contains three interwoven prophetic passages. We hope that we have shown that this allows a far more coherent and straightforward interpretation of this passage. In our paper on Daniel 12 we will show that this passage is part of a functional Chiasmus with chapter 12. In a third paper will also show that Chapter 10 and 11 are connected with a Janus type Chiasmus which means that Daniel 10, 11, and 12 are to be treated as one unit.

Probably the main reason we have this detailed history of Egypt and Syria during the inter-testamental "silent period" is because they were neighbours to Israel and their actions affected Israel deeply. This period, during which the Judahites suffered because of the wars between Syria and Egypt, coincides with 62 week period of Daniel 9 - a period of atonement for their sins according to our parse of the "70 weeks". This chapter builds up to a detailed account of Antiochus Epiphanes reign which could indicate that he is a type of the Antichrist who is also described in detail in another section of the chapter (Period 3). Antiochus' desecration of the temple at Jerusalem may serve as a type of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70AD - also mentioned in this chapter.(Period 2)

This detailed history of the time gives us an inkling of the depth to which God knows the future. Not only are the broad outlines of historical events mentioned here but also the smaller things like palace intrigues, failed plans, and the state of mind of the actors.

In our paper on Daniel 8, we discussed the powerful Satanic bloodlines move from Persia through Greece and Rome to the "West". There is another powerful set of lines from Babylon that flourished in Egypt and built the great Egyptian empires. The Greek empire could be the point at which these two lines merged before moving west.



References

[1] A Definition of Functional Chiasmus - by Kuruvilla Thomas K.
[2] An Exegesis Of "The 70 Weeks Of Daniel" Based On A Novel Chiastic Reconfiguration - by Kuruvilla Thomas K.
[3] First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) by Wikipedia.




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Daniel 9
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Functional Chiasmus