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A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Daniel 8

Kuruvilla Thomas
Bangalore
Published on 16 September 2023 *




Daniel 8 Timeline

Fig. 1


Introduction

This study treats Daniel 8:2-14 as a cryptochiasmus in order to arrive at a coherent reconfiguration of the text ( see definition of cryptochiasmus in [1] ). If you wish to skip the technicalities of a chiastic parse, you may read starting from Section 4 of the Discussion section, which has the reconfigured text.

The first part of Daniel 8:2-14 is a straightforward passage that is interpreted later in the chapter (vs. 15-27) by the angel Gabriel, but the second part (vs. 9-14) has generated much confusion because of the chiastic design of the section. With this reconfiguration, we will show that the timespan of "2300 evenings and mornings" in this prophecy predicts the birth year of the coming Messiah. Daniel is told to "seal up the vision", which makes this one of the few passages that are explicitly designated as sealed (like Daniel 10-12 [4] and others). This study concludes with a commentary on the rest of Daniel 8, vs 15-27, which is intimately linked with the cryptochiastic portion of the text.


Discussion

1. Presuppositions

We base our parse of Daniel 8:2-14 on the assumption that it refers to 3 periods:

  1. The Reign of the Greek Empire (333BC-146BC). This Period begins at Alexander's victory at the Battle of Issus and ends with the Greek defeat at the Battle of Corinth. Medo-Persia and Rome are also mentioned, but as part of the prologue and epilogue to the passage on the Greeks.
  2. The Fall of Jerusalem (70AD). Jerusalem and its temple are destroyed during the First Jewish-Roman War.
  3. The Birth of the coming Messiah, the "Prince of Princes" (1968/69AD). The Antichrist is also mentioned but no event is specified so that a date can be assigned.

2. Parsing the chiasmus

We will use the NIV translation for this parse.

Parsing this chiasmus involves dividing portions of the text into three categories as above. We will call time of the Greek Empire Period 1, the Fall of Jerusalem in 70AD Period 2, and the birth of the coming Messiah Period 3.

Categorizing Daniel 8:2-14

Vs 2-9 belong to Period 1. The period from Alexander's conquest of Medo-Persia to the inception of the Roman Empire.

Vs 10-11a belong to Period 3. Archangel Michael, the coming Messiah, defeats Satan and his angels shortly after the creation of the world. Although this event falls outside the Period, we will treat it as introductory to the passage on birth of the coming Messiah in 12b. The Antichrist is also mentioned here; he will set himself up to control the world and fight the Messiah.

Vs 11b-12a belong to Period 2. The destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans during The First Jewish–Roman War (66-73AD).

Vs 12b belongs to Period 3. God sends down "Truth" to the earth - the birth of the coming Messiah.

Vs 13-14 appears to belong to Period 1. The angels discuss the timespan of the prophecy. We complete this chiasmus by assigning this passage to Period 1, although there is nothing in the passage that is specific to the Period.


Original text

We color-code the chiastic units of the original text (NIV) below for easy visual identification using: red for Period 1, blue for Period 2, green for Period 3, and purple for the text outside the chiasmus. We have retranslated parts of the text.


Daniel 8:2-14 2 In my vision I saw myself in the citadel of Susa in the province of Elam; in the vision I was beside the Ulai Canal. 3 I looked up, and there before me was a ram with two horns, standing beside the canal, and the horns were long. One of the horns was longer than the other but grew up later. 4 I watched the ram as it charged toward the west and the north and the south. No animal could stand against it, and none could rescue from its power. It did as it pleased and became great.
5 As I was thinking about this, suddenly a goat with a prominent horn between its eyes came from the west, crossing the whole earth without touching the ground. 6 It came toward the two-horned ram I had seen standing beside the canal and charged at it in great rage. 7 I saw it attack the ram furiously, striking the ram and shattering its two horns. The ram was powerless to stand against it; the goat knocked it to the ground and trampled on it, and none could rescue the ram from its power. 8 The goat became very great, but at the height of its power the large horn was broken off, and in its place four prominent horns grew up toward the four winds of heaven.
9 Out of one of them came another horn, which started small but grew in power to the south and to the east and toward the Beautiful Land.

10 It defeated the host of heaven, threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them. [a] 11a He set himself up to be as great as the Prince of the army of the LORD. [b]
11b By Him the daily sacrifices were taken away. 11c The place of His sanctuary was cast down.[c] 12a An army was appointed against the daily sacrifices in rebellion.[d]
12b And He sent Truth down to the earth and it prospered in everything it did. [e]
13 Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to him, “How long will it take for the vision to be fulfilled—the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, the rebellion that causes desolation, the trampling underfoot of the sanctuary and the Lord’s people?” [f]
14 He said to me, “It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the holy one will be declared righteous [g].”


Retranslation notes for Daniel 8
[a] vs 10 "It defeated the host of heaven, threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them" instead of "It grew until it reached the host of the heavens, and it threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them". The word "defeated" may be alternatively rendered "excelled against".
[b] vs 11 "He set himself up to be as great as the Prince of the army of the LORD." instead of "It set itself up to be as great as the commander of the army of the LORD;".
[c] vs 11 "By Him the daily sacrifices were taken away. The place of His sanctuary was cast down" instead of "it took away the daily sacrifice from the LORD, and his sanctuary was thrown down". Retranslated and punctuated to fit the chiastic design.
[d] vs 12 "An army was appointed against the daily sacrifices in rebellion" instead of "Because of rebellion, the LORD’s people and the daily sacrifice were given over to it".
[e] vs 12 "And He sent Truth down to the earth and it prospered in everything it did" instead of "It prospered in everything it did, and truth was thrown to the ground.".
[f] vs 13 "the trampling underfoot of the sanctuary and the Lord’s people" instead of "the surrender of the sanctuary and the trampling underfoot of the LORD’s people".
[g] vs 14 "then the holy one will be declared righteous" instead of "then the sanctuary will be reconsecrated".

3. Building the reconfigured text

From this parse, it appears that Daniel 8:2-14 forms a cryptochiasmus as below:

A1   vs. 2-9 Period 1. From Alexander to the Roman Empire
  B1   vs. 10-11a Period 3. The Messiah and the Antichrist
    X   vs. 11b-12a Period 2. Destruction of Jerusalem.
  B2   vs. 12b Period 3. The birth of the coming Messiah
A2   vs. 13-14 Period 1. The angels discuss the timespan of the prophecy

We now reconstruct the passages in the right order based on the chiastic structure above and based on the ordering rules of cryptochiasmi [1].

We lead with the central pivot point 'X'. The corresponding subunits (For ex., subunit A1 corresponds to A2) are placed contiguously to form units (For ex., A1,A2 is a unit).


The sequence selected for rearrangement is:

X  [A1,A2]  [B1,B2]        (1)

Translating (1) into verse numbers, we get:

[11b-12a]   [[2-9], [13-14]]   [[10-11a], 12b]        (2)

We arrive at the reconfigured passage in the next section by rearranging the verses so they are in sequence (2).



4. Daniel 8:2-14 Reconfigured

Period 2. The Fall of Jerusalem (70AD) (vs. 11b-12a)
11b By Him the daily sacrifices were taken away.
11c The place of His sanctuary was cast down.
12a An army was appointed against the daily sacrifices in rebellion.

Period 1. The Reign of the Greek Empire (333BC-146BC) (vs. 2-9,13-14)
2 In my vision I saw myself in the citadel of Susa in the province of Elam; in the vision I was beside the Ulai Canal. 3 I looked up, and there before me was a ram with two horns, standing beside the canal, and the horns were long. One of the horns was longer than the other but grew up later. 4 I watched the ram as it charged toward the west and the north and the south. No animal could stand against it, and none could rescue from its power. It did as it pleased and became great.
5 As I was thinking about this, suddenly a goat with a prominent horn between its eyes came from the west, crossing the whole earth without touching the ground.
6 It came toward the two-horned ram I had seen standing beside the canal and charged at it in great rage. 7 I saw it attack the ram furiously, striking the ram and shattering its two horns. The ram was powerless to stand against it; the goat knocked it to the ground and trampled on it, and none could rescue the ram from its power.
8 The goat became very great, but at the height of its power the large horn was broken off, and in its place four prominent horns grew up toward the four winds of heaven.
9 Out of one of them came another horn, which started small but grew in power to the south and to the east and toward the Beautiful Land. 13 Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to him, “How long will it take for the vision to be fulfilled—the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, the rebellion that causes desolation, the trampling underfoot of the sanctuary and the Lord’s people?” 14 He said to me, “It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings; then the holy one will be declared righteous.”

Period 3. The Birth of the coming Messiah, the "Prince of Princes" (1968/69AD) (vs. 10-11a, 12b)
10 It defeated the host of heaven, threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them.
11a He set himself up to be as great as the Prince of the army of the LORD.
12b And He sent Truth down to the earth and it prospered in everything it did.


5 A Commentary on the Reconfigured Text

5.0 Introductory passage (vs 1)

1. In the third year of King Belshazzar’s reign, I, Daniel, had a vision, after the one that had already appeared to me.

Daniel had this vision in Belshazzar’s 3rd year, shortly after the vision of Ch 7 that he had in Belshazzar’s 1st year. Belshazzar, who reigned till 539BC, was the last king of the Babylonian empire (see Dan. 5). Note that the text switches back to Hebrew from this chapter onward - it had been in Aramaic from Dan. 2:4-7:28.



5.1 Period 2. The Fall of Jerusalem (70AD) (vs. 11b-12a)

This Period is structured as a chiasmus. The pivot, X [11c], predicts that Jerusalem and its temple will be destroyed (c. Sep 70AD). The subunits, A1 [11b] and A2 [12a], predict that the sacrifices at Jerusalem will be stopped by the Roman army (c. Mar 70AD). So the events of the Pivot occur a few months after the events of the Subunits.


11b By Him the daily sacrifices were taken away.
11c The place of His sanctuary was cast down.
12a An army was appointed against the daily sacrifices in rebellion.

Through a covenant with Titus, God used the Roman army to stop the daily sacrifices at the temple in Jerusalem and then destroy Jerusalem and its temple (Dan 9:27). (See the paper on the 70 weeks of Daniel [2] for more details on this period.)

In the middle of the First Jewish-Roman War, the Romans laid siege to Jerusalem in the spring of 70AD, effectively stopping the daily sacrifices at the temple. After Christ's atoning death on the cross (Ephesians 1:7), these sacrifices were obsolete, and only the wicked Judahites who rejected Christ continued to perform them ("in rebellion").

By the fall of 70AD, the Romans extirpated Jerusalem and its temple ("sanctuary was cast down"), indicating the end of the Old Covenant. From that time, only the New Covenant, Christianity, was in force.



5.2 Period 1. The Reign of the Greek Empire (333BC-146BC) (vs. 2-9, 13-14)

This Period is structured as a two-unit chiasmus:

A1 2-4 Prologue - Vision at Susa, Pre-Greek Empire (Medo-Persia).
  B1 5 Rise of Alexander the Great
    X 6-7 Medo-Persian Empire Destroyed by Alexander
  B2 8 Fall of Alexander the Great
A2 9,13-14 Epilogue - The two angels, Post-Greek Empire (Rome).


Subunit A1: Prologue - Vision at Susa, Pre-Greek Empire (Medo-Persia) (vs 2-4)

Part P1: Vision at Susa (vs 2)

2 In my vision I saw myself in the citadel of Susa in the province of Elam; in the vision I was beside the Ulai Canal.

Daniel sets this vision by the Ulai Canal in Susa, one of the capitals of Persia. The location of the vision is significant, because it was near Susa that Alexander won the battle that utterly crushed the Medo-Persian Empire (see Pivot).



Part P2: Pre-Greek Empire - Medo-Persia (vs 3-4)

3 I looked up, and there before me was a ram with two horns, standing beside the canal, and the horns were long. One of the horns was longer than the other but grew up later. 4 I watched the ram as it charged toward the west and the north and the south. No animal could stand against it, and none could rescue from its power. It did as it pleased and became great.

From the angel Gabriel's explanation of the vision in vs. 20, we know that the ram represents Medo-Persia. The two horns represent the leadership of Media and Persia with the higher horn representing Persia - Persia was the newer power but grew to be the stronger of the two. (A horn in this and other prophecies represents a ruler or a centre of power). The empire expanded west all the way to Syria and Libya, north to the regions around the Caspian sea, and south into India, but did not significantly expand east in the direction of China. Medo-Persia was a great and powerful empire (as indicated by the long horns - vs 3) that dominated the region and the world in its time.

Bodies of water represent multitudes of people, so the Ulai canal may represent the common people of the vast regions that these empires controlled.



Subunit B1: Rise of Alexander the Great (vs 5)

5 As I was thinking about this, suddenly a goat with a prominent horn between its eyes came from the west, crossing the whole earth without touching the ground.

The angel Gabriel interprets the goat as representing the Greek empire, making Alexander the Great, its first king (see vs 21), its prominent horn. Alexander began his campaign against Persia c. 334BC in a furious retaliation to Xerxes' earlier attack on Greece and destruction of Athens, and also in retaliation to the expulsion of the Satanic bloodlines from Babylon (see details in appendix below). Alexander's first direct confrontation with Darius III, the emperor of Persia, was in 333BC when he defeated the emperor at the battle of Issus - we treat this date as the start date of this Period and the prophecy. After conducting an expedition that rapidly conquered ("without touching the ground") vast areas of Persia-controlled Asia and Africa, Alexander advanced towards the capital cities of Persia.



Pivot X: Medo-Persian Empire Destroyed by Alexander (vs 6-7)

6 It came toward the two-horned ram I had seen standing beside the canal and charged at it in great rage. 7 I saw it attack the ram furiously, striking the ram and shattering its two horns. The ram was powerless to stand against it; the goat knocked it to the ground and trampled on it, and none could rescue the ram from its power.

Alexander defeated a Persian last stand near Susa, the site of this vision, in 330 BC. This was the end of the Medo-Persian Empire.



Subunit B2: Fall of Alexander the Great (vs 8)

8 The goat became very great, but at the height of its power the large horn was broken off, and in its place four prominent horns grew up toward the four winds of heaven.


Under Alexander, the Greek empire grew rapidly so that it extended from Greece and Egypt in the west to India in the east, but on his sudden death in 323BC, his generals (the Diadochi) warred over his empire, as he had left behind no clear successor. After the battle of Ipsus in 301BC, the empire was permanently divided into 4 kingdoms (the 4 horns, see verse 22): to the west, Cassander ruled Greece and Macedonia; to the north, Lysimachus ruled Thrace and Asia Minor; to the south, Ptolemy Soter controlled Egypt and Palestine; and to the east Seleucus Nicator controlled Syria, Babylonia and regions farther east up to India.



Subunit A2: Epilogue - The two angels, Post-Greek Empire (Rome) (vs 9,13-14)

Part P1: Post-Greek Empire - Rome. (vs 9)

9 Out of one of them came another horn, which started small but grew in power to the south and to the east and toward the Beautiful Land.


One of the 4 horns of verse 8, the Ptolemaic empire, controlled parts of southern Italy through the efforts of Pyrrhus of Epirus, who, for a short while, conquered regions in Italy up to the very border of Rome (c. 280 BC). But Pyrrhus' victories proved pyrrhic, and the Roman Republic, which started off as a relatively minor power, a "small horn", took control of all of Italy, including its Greek regions (called Magna Graecia) after the Battle of Beneventum by c. 272BC (the preposition translated "out of" in this verse can be taken to mean "from a region of"). Rome then gradually expanded into other parts of the Greek Empire: to the south into Egypt in Northern Africa; to the east into Syria and Asia Minor and to the south-east into Judea and its surrounding regions. Although Roman rule expanded in other directions, the focus here appears to be its growth towards Jerusalem.



Part P2: The two angels (vs 13-14)

13 Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to him, “How long will it take for the vision to be fulfilled—the vision concerning the daily sacrifice, the rebellion that causes desolation, the trampling underfoot of the sanctuary and the Lord’s people?”

Daniel was woken from the vision by the voice of an angel. The angel's question in this passage only pertains to the part of the vision about the Destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD (Period 2), but we will treat it as an inquiry on the timespan of the entire vision - it is a synecdoche of sorts that serves to further obscure the meaning of the passage.



14a He said to me, “It will take 2,300 evenings and mornings;”

For the "2300 evenings and mornings" to specify the timespan of the entire vision, it would have to represent 2300 years. This interpretation agrees with vs. 17&19, “...the vision concerns the appointed time of the end”, and vs. 26, "The vision of the evenings and mornings... concerns the distant future.”

Which events indicate the start and end of the 2300 year timespan and what are the corresponding dates?


14b "then the holy one will be declared righteous.

The coming Messiah, the Holy Spirit, will then be declared righteous, and he will be anointed to indicate that he is worthy of ruling Israel and the world ("Messiah" means "Anointed One"). According to our analysis of Daniel 9 [2], this anointing occurs in 2017AD, 49 years after the birth of the Messiah. And according to our analysis of Rev 5 [6], this figurative anointing takes place when the Lion of the tribe of Judah (the coming Messiah) triumphs so he can open the seals.



5.3 Period 3. The Birth of the coming Messiah, the "Prince of Princes" (1968/69AD) (vs. 10-11a, 12b)

This Period is structured as a chiasmus. The pivot, X [va 11a], is regarding the Antichrist. The subunits, A1 [vs 10] and A2 [vs 12b], are regarding the coming Messiah. Note that the Messiah is called "Truth" in this Period and so the pronoun "it" is used for him.


Subunit A1: The coming Messiah, Archangel Michael (vs 10)

10 It defeated the host of heaven, threw some of the starry host down to the earth and trampled on them.

Shortly after the earth was created in 4034BC, there was a war in heaven, and Michael ("it") defeated Satan and his forces in 4032BC; he dispatched a third of the angels ("starry host"), those on Satan's side, to the earth and punished them (Rev. 12:4,7-9). Note that the "host of heaven" in this passage refers only to the angels under Satan (as in Deut. 4:19).

This ancient war in heaven is mentioned here in this Period of the start of the Millennial Reign to indicate that the war in heaven for the souls of angels was a type of the battle for the souls of men during the reign of the Beast (see Rev 13 in [6]). The opposing leaders of the heavenly war were Michael and Satan, and the leaders of this earthly war are the Messiah and the Antichrist. In both wars, the victor is the side that wins a 2/3rds majority of souls.



Pivot X: The Antichrist prepares to fight the Messiah (vs 11a)

11a He set himself up to be as great as the Prince of the army of the LORD.

The Antichrist will use "Babylon" and the Beast system (see Rev 17 in [6]) to acquire great power and fight the Messiah, "the Prince of the Lords army", but the Antichrist will be defeated with the help of the angels of the Lord's army (see Gabriel's explanation of this verse in vs. 23-25; see also Rev. 19:20).



Subunit A2: The coming Messiah, Archangel Michael (vs 12b)

12b And He sent Truth down to the earth and it prospered in everything it did.

We believe that this passage predicts the birth of the coming Messiah (Isaiah 9:6), the earthly ruler who will represent Jesus as the King of Kings. The Messiah will be sent down to earth to rule over Israel and the world during Christ's Millennial Reign.

The coming Messiah is called 'Truth' here, and he is given similar epithets in other passages: he is the Comforter and 'Spirit of Truth' of John 14:15-17; and the Rider on the White Horse in Rev. 19:11-14, who is both 'Faithful' and 'True' (the word translated 'Truth' in this verse can also mean 'Faithful'). Also Michael, being the angel responsible for the Israelites (Dan. 12:1), was the primary transmitter of the Word of God - the Truth - to the prophets.

The coming Messiah will, with divine assistance, be victorious over Satan's kingdom and lead the world into a prosperous age under Christ.



6 Commentary on Daniel 8:15-27: the explanatory passage outside the chiasmus

15 While I, Daniel, was watching the vision and trying to understand it, there before me stood one who looked like a man. 16 And I heard a man’s voice from the Ulai calling, “Gabriel, tell this man the meaning of the vision.”
17 As he came near the place where I was standing, I was terrified and fell prostrate. “Son of man,” he said to me, “understand that the vision concerns the time of the end.”
18 While he was speaking to me, I was in a deep sleep, with my face to the ground. Then he touched me and raised me to my feet.

A voice from a superior spiritual being tells the angel Gabriel to interpret this vision for Daniel. As in other visions, the prophet is terrified at the sight of the angel and suffers a faint, but is then woken and comforted by the angel (see also Dan. 10:8-11, Rev. 1:17). Note that, most often, angels appear to people as human men, and not as creatures with wings.



19 He said: “I am going to tell you what will happen later in the time of wrath, because the vision concerns the appointed time of the end.

The phrase "time of wrath" refers to Satan's short tyrannical rule through the Antichrist (2023-2027AD) (see also Rev. 12:12, Rev. 13), and "time of the end" refers to the end of Satan's reign on earth in 2027AD (Dan. 12:13) - these phrases indicate the temporal extent of this vision.



20 The two-horned ram that you saw represents the kings of Media and Persia. 21 The shaggy goat is the king of Greece, and the large horn between its eyes is the first king. 22 The four horns that replaced the one that was broken off represent four kingdoms that will emerge from his nation but will not have the same power.

See a detailed explanation on these symbols in the commentary under vs 3-8 above.

The Persian and the Greek empires are represented by the ram and the goat respectively, but why specifically these two animals? We propose that the ram (male sheep) and the goat represent good and evil empires respectively, as in Matthew 25:31-46. Medo-Persia, the empire of God's chosen Cyrus, the empire that had helped the Judahites rebuild (Ezra 1:1-4), and the empire that had expelled the Satanic bloodlines from Babylon (see details in the appendix below), was the good empire; the Greek empire, the empire that was controlled by the Satanic bloodlines of Pergamum, the empire that was Satan's kingdom at that time, was the evil empire.



23 “In the latter part of their reign, when rebels have become completely wicked, a fierce-looking king, a master of intrigue, will arise.

We propose this alternative translation for this verse: "In the far end of their kingdom, at a time when rebels have become completely wicked, a king with a fierce mein, a master of intrigue, will arise".

The Antichrist will emerge from the Vatican in Italy (the Vatican is the "temple of God" of 2 Thess. 2:4), which is near one of the remotest parts of the ancient Greek empire from Jerusalem. He will come at the time of rebellion (see also 2 Thess. 2:3), when Satan and his forces are given tyrannical power over the earth through the reign of the Beast, and he will rule with deception and cunning. ( These passages in vs 23-25, that describe the Antichrist in some detail, expand on vs 11a.)



24 He will become very strong, but not by his own power. He will cause astounding devastation and will succeed in whatever he does. He will destroy those who are mighty, the holy people.

The Antichrist will control the whole world through spiritual power from the Satanic realm and through the physical power of the 7-headed Beast (see Rev. 13). He will destroy many, particularly those who refuse to worship the Beast, the people of God (see Rev 13:15) (the phrase "those who are mighty, the holy people" is better rendered "multitudes, and the holy people").



25 He will cause deceit to prosper, and he will consider himself superior. When they feel secure, he will destroy many and take his stand against the Prince of princes. Yet he will be destroyed, but not by human power.

The Antichrist will set up a global environment of deceit, that he then uses to gain complete control over the world, and he will elevate himself to be greater than all gods (2 Thess. 2:4, Dan. 11:36), all so that he may win the souls of men. He will seemingly come in peace ("when they feel secure", "like a lamb" - Rev. 13:11), but then suddenly destroy the lives of many. He will even battle the coming Messiah but will be defeated through the aid of supernatural forces (see Rev. 19:11-21).

Powerful angels who are placed in charge of nations are called "princes", as in Daniel 10 [7], and so the "Prince of princes" is the leader of the angels - archangel Michael. Michael is "the first of the chief princes" in Dan. 10:13 [7], and the leader of the angels in Rev. 12:7 [5].



26 “The vision of the evenings and mornings that has been given you is true, but seal up the vision, for it concerns the distant future.”

An "evening and morning" represents one year in this prophecy, perhaps with the evenings and mornings figuratively representing fall and spring respectively (these prophecies follow the Hebrew secular fall-to-fall calendar), so the 2300 "evenings and mornings" spans millennia ("distant future").

The angel tells Daniel to "seal up the vision", and this seal likely corresponds to the first seal in Rev. 5:1-2. So the opening of this seal, that discloses the birth year of the coming Messiah, releases the "Rider on the White Horse", the Messiah, who then sets out to conquer (Rev. 6:2).



27 I, Daniel, was worn out. I lay exhausted for several days. Then I got up and went about the king’s business. I was appalled by the vision; it was beyond understanding.

Daniel must have seen a lot more than he wrote down, for the experience drained him. The prophecy was sealed, even to Daniel, which means that, at least in some cases, scripture was dictated to the prophets from above word-for-word.




Conclusion

With this chiastic reconfiguration, we show that this prophecy is regarding 3 distinct Periods spanning 2300 years. On a straight-through reading of the passage, it appears that the prophecy ends with Antiochus Epiphanes' desecration of the temple in Jerusalem. But with this reconfiguration, we have shown that the prophecy predicts the coming of the Antichrist and the birth of the Messiah.




Appendix

The "Empires of Daniel" and the Satanic Bloodlines

Satan's Empires

Why do we see Daniel 2, 7, 8, 11 & 12 and other prophecies repeatedly chart the history of the same empires - Assyria, Neo-Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome - to the exclusion of all the other great empires of the world? We propose that these are the empires through which Satan, with the aid of certain bloodlines, enforces his reign on earth.


The Bloodlines

Members of priestly/royal bloodlines from ancient Babylon - likely from Nimrod (see Micah 5:6) - control these empires and the rest of the world for Satan, just as members of the Davidic line led God's kingdom, Israel. (The detailed Biblical listing of the Davidic genealogies indicate that bloodlines matter.) The priests/kings of these bloodlines enhance their wealth and power by worshipping Satan and his mighty demons using their esoteric mystery knowledge from Babylon (see Isa. 47:9-12), and by doing Satan's bidding. Their current seat of power at the Vatican - the Great Whore of Rev. 17:5 - is called "Mystery, Babylon" because of these strong, secret connections to ancient Babylon.


The Bloodlines move West

The Medo-Persian emperor Xerxes, wary of the power and machinations of these bloodlines, deposed them from Babylon and destroyed their temples, forcing them to flee west (c. 480BC). They later retaliated by taking control of the Greeks and helping Alexander the Great defeat the Medo-Persians (c. 333BC); they established their new headquarters at Pergamum (Rev. 2:13). The Romans took ownership of Pergamum (c. 133BC), and a short time later, the bloodlines took control of the Roman Empire through Julius Caesar (c. 49BC) and his successors. As the bloodlines moved westward, Satan's world capital and temple moved with them from Babylon to Pergamum and then to Rome.


The Roman Catholic Empire ('Babylon') and its vassals.

After the fall of Rome, c. 480AD, the Satanic bloodlines that had controlled Rome extended their reign by using the Roman Catholic Church to leech on to other European nations. Initially they ruled through the Holy Roman Empire, but after that they turned into a covert global empire. Biblical prophesy treats the "Roman" Empire of this period as made up of two divisions:


References

[1] A Definition of Cryptochiasmus
[2] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of "The 70 Weeks Of Daniel"
[3] First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) by Wikipedia.
[4] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of The Text.Daniel 10-12. Part 3: Daniel 12.
[5] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Revelation 12
[6] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Revelation 4-22: Part 2
[7] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Daniel 10-12: Part 1
[8] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Ezekiel 4-5





* First version published on 9 March 2019.