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DRAFT: A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of "The Olivet Discourse" in Luke 21

Kuruvilla Thomas
Bangalore
Published on 29 December 2023 *




Luke 21 Timeline

Fig. 1


Introduction

This study treats the "Olivet Discourse" in Luke 21 as a cryptochiasmus in order to arrive at a coherent reconfiguration of the text. Text that is structured as a cryptochiasmus must be rearranged based on certain principles to be correctly interpreted. A cryptochiasmus is a new concept; see definition in [1]. If you wish to skip the technicalities of a chiastic parse, you may read starting from Section 4 of the Discussion section, which has the reconfigured text.

The Olivet Discourse is clearly an interweaving of predictions regarding different times into one narrative, and with this chiastic reconstruction, we will show that this prophecy from Jesus makes predictions about three distinct periods. The content of this passage is similar to the Olivet Discourses in Matthew 24 [6] and in Mark 13.


Note:
We will use the term "Judahite" to refer to the Israelites - primarily those of the tribe of Judah and their descendants - that remained after the Assyrian exile of the Northern Tribes; we will try to avoid the term "Jew" to avoid the confusion it introduces.



Discussion

1. Presuppositions

In the Olivet passage in Matthew 24, the disciples ask Jesus three questions (Matt 24:3): when will this happen (the destruction of the temple), what will be the sign of your coming, and of the end of the age? Jesus' prophetic reply is regarding the three Periods listed below:

  1. The First Jewish–Roman War (66AD–73AD).
  2. The Tribulation Period before Christ's Millennial Reign (2023AD-2027AD). The tribulation and persecution of this Period seem to come from Satan through his human worshippers. The 2023AD date for the start of this Period is from our analysis of Daniel 7 [11] and the 2027AD date for the start of the Millennial Reign from our parse of Isaiah 60-62 [10].
  3. The Start of the End Times Tribulation (unknown date before 2967AD). Christ returns glory at the beginning of the last days to gather up the faithful. The c. 2967AD date for the End of the Age is from our parse of Daniel 10-12 [8].

2. Parsing the chiasmus

We will use the NIV translation for this parse.

Parsing this chiasmus involves dividing the text into three categories as above. We will call the period of the First Jewish-Roman War Period 1, the period of the Pre-Millennial Tribulation Period 2 and the start of the "End of the Age" Period 3.

Categorizing vs 8-36

Vs 8-19 belong to Period 2. Wars, famines, earthquakes, fearful events, signs in the heavens, persecution and betrayal. Show discernment. Stay faithful.

Vs 20-24a belong to Period 1. The Judahites are warned to flee as soon as they saw the Roman army in Jerusalem. Note that these verses refer to a localized event in Judea - only the residents of Judea are warned to flee to the mountains. The few Judahites that are not killed by the Romans are taken into exile.

Vs 24b belongs to Period 2. Israel ("Jerusalem") will be trampled on by the Gentiles until this Period.

Vs 25-28 belong to Period 3. Great signs and terror in the physical realm. The powers of heaven are shaken. Christ appears glory and the faithful are redeemed through the rapture.

Vs 29-31 belong to Period 2. The proverb of the fig tree indicates that the Messiah will arrive in a short time, around 2 months into this Period.

Vs 32 belongs to Period 1. The phrase "this generation will not pass away..." points to a period within one generation (around 40 years) of Jesus' time.

Vs 33-34a belong to Period 2. The phrase "my words will never pass away" refers to the eternal Gospel that is preached to all nations by the end of this Period, as we see in the reconfiguration of the Olivet discourse in Matthew 24 [6]. Do not lose heart at hearing bad news, thinking the end is near.

Vs 34b-36 belong to Period 3. No one knows the hour of the coming of Christ in glory. Christ will return unexpectedly, like a trap that closes without warning.


Original text

We color-code the chiastic units of the original text (NIV) below for easy visual identification using: red for Period 1, blue for Period 2, green for Period 3, and purple for text outside the chiasmus. We have retranslated parts of the text.


Chapter 21 5 Some of his disciples were remarking about how the temple was adorned with beautiful stones and with gifts dedicated to God. But Jesus said, 6 “As for what you see here, the time will come when not one stone will be left on another; every one of them will be thrown down.” 7 “Teacher,” they asked, “when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are about to take place?”

8 He replied: “Watch out that you are not deceived. For many will come in my name, claiming, ‘I am he,’ and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them. 9 When you hear of wars and uprisings, do not be frightened. These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away.”
10 Then he said to them: “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 11 There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and great signs from heaven.
12 “But above [a] all this, they will seize you and persecute you. They will hand you over to synagogues and put you in prison, and you will be brought before kings and governors, and all on account of my name. 13 And so you will bear testimony to me. 14 But make up your mind not to worry beforehand how you will defend yourselves. 15 For I will give you words and wisdom that none of your adversaries will be able to resist or contradict. 16 You will be betrayed even by parents, brothers and sisters, relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death. 17 Everyone will hate you because of me. 18 But not a hair of your head will perish. 19 Stand firm, and you will win life.
20 “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near. 21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those in the city get out, and let those in the country not enter the city. 22 For this is the time of punishment in fulfillment of all that has been written. 23 How dreadful it will be in those days for pregnant women and nursing mothers! There will be great distress in the land and wrath against this people. 24a They will fall by the sword and will be taken as prisoners to all the nations.
24b Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.
25 “There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars. On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea. 26 People will faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens [b] will be shaken. 27 At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28 When these things begin to take place, stand up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”
29 He told them this parable: “Look at the fig tree and all the trees. 30 When they sprout leaves, you can see for yourselves and know that summer is near. 31 Even so, when you see these things happening, you know that the kingdom of God is near.
32 “Truly I tell you, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.
33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away. 34a “Be careful, or your hearts will be overcome with dissipation and drunkenness for the worries of this world. [c]
34b And that day will close on you suddenly like a trap. 35 For it will come on all those who live on the face of the whole earth. 36 Be always on the watch, and pray that you may be able to escape all that is about to happen, and that you may be able to stand before the Son of Man.”


Retranslation notes for Luke 21
[a] vs 12 "above" instead of "before".
[b] vs 26 "powers of the heavens" instead of "heavenly bodies".
[c] vs 34 "overcome with dissipation and drunkenness for the worries of this world. And" instead of "weighed down with carousing, drunkenness and the anxieties of life, and".


3. Building the reconfigured text

From this parse, it appears that verses 8-34a form a 3-unit cryptochiasmus as below:

A1   8-19 Period 2. False messiahs, wars, famines, persecution, betrayal
  B1   20-24a Period 1. The Romans at Jerusalem. Flee to the mountains
    C1   24b Period 2. "Jerusalem" will be trampled on
      X   25-28 Period 3. Christ returns in glory, redemption
    C2   29-31 Period 2. Fig tree parable
  B2   32 Period 1. This generation will not pass away
A2   33-34a Period 2. My words will never pass away


We now reconstruct the passages in the right order based on the chiastic structure above and based on the ordering rules of a cryptochiasmus [1].

We lead with the central pivot point 'X'. The corresponding subunits (For ex., subunit A1 corresponds to A2) are placed contiguously to form units (For ex., A1,A2 is a unit) so that we get a list of such units.

The sequence selected for rearrangement is:

X  [A1,A2]  [B1,B2]  [C1,C2]       (1)

We have the following sequence when we include verse 34b-36:
X         - Period 3
[A1,A2] - Period 2
[B1,B2] - Period 1
[C1,C2] - Period 2
v 34b-36 - Period 3. Christ will return suddenly

We still have text for the Periods in a non-contiguous form. We treat this as a multiply-applied cryptochiasmus as below:


M1   X Period 3
  N1   [A1,A2] Period 2
   XX   [B1,B2] Period 1
  N2   [C1,C2] Period 2
M2   v 34b-36 Period 3

The sequence selected for rearrangement is:
XX  [N1,N2]  [M1,M2]        (2)

Note that we placed [N1,N2] before [M1,M2] in order to get the time Periods in chronological sequence. The rules of cryptochiasmus [1] allow this as there is no discernible change in meaning.

Translating this sequence (2) into the sub-units of the first chiasmus, we get:

[B1,B2]  [[A1, A2], [C1,C2]]   [X, v 34b-36]        (3)

Further translating (3) into verse numbers, we get:

[20-24a, 32]  [[8-19,33-34a], [24b, 29-31]]   [25-28, 34b-36]        (4)

We arrive at the reconfigured passage in the next section by rearranging the verses so they are in sequence (4).


4. Luke 21 Reconfigured

Period 1. The First Jewish–Roman War (66AD–73AD) (vs. 20-24a, 32)

20 “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near. 21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those in the city get out, and let those in the country not enter the city. 22 For this is the time of punishment in fulfillment of all that has been written.
23a How dreadful it will be in those days for pregnant women and nursing mothers!
23b There will be great distress in the land and wrath against this people. 24a They will fall by the sword and will be taken as prisoners to all the nations. 32 “Truly I tell you, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.

Period 2. The Tribulation Period before Christ's Millennial Reign (2023AD-2027AD) (vs. 8-19, 33-34a, 24b, 29-31)

8 He replied: “Watch out that you are not deceived. For many will come in my name, claiming, ‘I am he,’ and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them. 9 When you hear of wars and uprisings, do not be frightened. These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away.” 10 Then he said to them: “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 11 There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and great signs from heaven.
12 “But above all this, they will seize you and persecute you. They will hand you over to synagogues and put you in prison, and you will be brought before kings and governors, and all on account of my name. 13 And so you will bear testimony to me.
14 But make up your mind not to worry beforehand how you will defend yourselves. 15 For I will give you words and wisdom that none of your adversaries will be able to resist or contradict.
16 You will be betrayed even by parents, brothers and sisters, relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death. 17 Everyone will hate you because of me. 18 But not a hair of your head will perish. 19 Stand firm, and you will win life. 33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.
34a “Be careful, or your hearts will be overcome with dissipation and drunkenness for the worries of this world. 24b Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 29 He told them this parable: “Look at the fig tree and all the trees. 30 When they sprout leaves, you can see for yourselves and know that summer is near. 31 Even so, when you see these things happening, you know that the kingdom of God is near.

Period 3. The Start of the End Times Tribulation (unknown date before 2967AD) (vs. 25-28, 34b-36)

25 “There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars. On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea. 26 People will faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
27 At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28 When these things begin to take place, stand up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”
34b And that day will close on you suddenly like a trap. 35 For it will come on all those who live on the face of the whole earth. 36 Be always on the watch, and pray that you may be able to escape all that is about to happen, and that you may be able to stand before the Son of Man.”


5. A Commentary on the Reconfigured Text

5.1 Introductory statements (vs. 5-7)

5 Some of his disciples were remarking about how the temple was adorned with beautiful stones and with gifts dedicated to God. But Jesus said, 6 “As for what you see here, the time will come when not one stone will be left on another; every one of them will be thrown down.”


The disciples were admiring the magnificent temple at Jerusalem, that Herod built, when Jesus predicted that the temple will be completely destroyed. This prediction that "not one stone here will be left on another" came true, quite literally in 70 AD.



7 “Teacher,” they asked, “when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are about to take place?”


The disciples then ask for signs that indicate when Jesus' prophecies will take place (this verse is a summary of the question in Matthew 24:3). As we see below, Jesus gives them details on three events and answers the questions about the signs in three different ways: he gives a definite sign for the immediate start of the first event, a set of signs that indicate that the second event is imminent, and says there will be no sign at all for the third.



5.2 Period 1. The First Jewish–Roman War (66AD–73AD) (vs. 20-24a, 32)

This Period is structured as a chiasmus. The pivot, X [23a], is regarding personal, practical problems that the Judahites may face as they flee. The subunits are summaries of the war, A1 [20-22] focusses on the Romans' arrival in Jerusalem, and A2 [23b-24a,32] is regarding more general aspects of the war.


20 “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know that its desolation is near.


The Roman army and its allies' arrival in Jerusalem is the sure sign indicating the immediate start of this period of tribulation. ( Matthew, Mark and Daniel refer to the Roman army attacking Jerusalem as the "abomination that causes desolation".) The Romans killed almost all the Judahites in the city and destroyed the city and its temple. (For more details on this Period, see our paper on "The 70 weeks of Daniel" [2] and a history of the war in [3].)



21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those in the city get out, and let those in the country not enter the city. 22 For this is the time of punishment in fulfillment of all that has been written.


Jesus exhorted his followers in Judea to flee immediately on seeing the Roman soldiers. For a short period, as the Romans prepared to lay siege to Jerusalem, Judahites were allowed to enter the city, but Jesus warns his followers against doing so, as those who entered could not leave. According to some historians, the Judahites fled to Pella [4] which is located at the foothills of the Transjordanian Mountains. Many prophecies in the Old and New testaments - notably all passages that are structured as cryptochiasmi - predict this devastation of Jerusalem ("fulfillment of all that has been written").



23a How dreadful it will be in those days for pregnant women and nursing mothers!


In this pivot, Jesus expresses concern for some of the practical problems the Judahites may face as they fled. Pregnant and nursing mothers would have found it particularly difficult to make this sudden, rushed journey to a refugee camp.



23b There will be great distress in the land and wrath against this people. 24a They will fall by the sword and will be taken as prisoners to all the nations.


The Romans were completely ruthless and thorough in their efforts to annihilate the Judahites and destroy their city. The small number of Judahites in Jerusalem who were not killed were exiled into slavery.



32 “Truly I tell you, this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.


The events of 70 AD happened within a generation of Jesus' time (around 40 years). The Judahites who converted to Christianity were the only people who moved from the Old Covenant to the New without a break.



5.3 Period 2. The Tribulation Period before Christ's Millennial Reign (2023AD-2027AD) (vs. 8-19, 33-34a, 24b, 29-31)

The passage below (vs. 8-19,33-34a,24b,29-31) is arranged as a two-unit chiasmus:

A1 8-11 Events before the reign of the Beast (30AD-Nov 2023AD)
  B1 12-13 The reign of the Beast and its end (Nov 2023-Apr 2027)
    X 14-15 The Spirit will guide the faithful (Nov 2023-Apr 2027)
  B2 16-19,33 The reign of the Beast and its end (Nov 2023-Apr 2027)
A2 34a,24b,29-31 Events before the reign of the Beast (30AD-Nov 2023AD)

Each of the Subunits A1 and A2 are further divided into two Parts:
  P1: Show discernment, Do not be misled (30AD-Sep 2023AD)
  P2: The beginning of the tribulation (from Sep 2023AD)

Similarly each of the Subunits B1 and B2 are further divided into two Parts:
  P1: The tribulation during the reign of the Beast (Nov 2023-Apr 2027)
  P2: The end of the tribulation (Apr 2027)

( The chiastic structure of this Period is the same as that of Mark 13. Also, the content of this Period is similar to that of Period 2 in Matthew 24, but the design of this chiasmus is different. Unit A and Subunit B1 in Matthew, are combined into both Subunits A1 and A2 of this chiasmus. Similarly, the Pivot X and Subunit B2 in Matthew are combined into both Subunits B1 and B2 of this chiasmus. The pivot of this chiasmus is not found in Matthew.)



Subunit A1: Events before the reign of the Beast (vs 8-11)

  Part P1: Show discernment, Do not be misled (30AD-Sep 2023AD) (vs 8-9)

8 He replied: “Watch out that you are not deceived. For many will come in my name, claiming, ‘I am he,’ and, ‘The time is near.’ Do not follow them. 9 When you hear of wars and uprisings, do not be frightened. These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away.”

Jesus exhorts Christians to show discernment when it comes to these prophecies. In the millennia between Jesus at his First Coming and this Period, many false messiahs will deceive many with false doctrines. There will be great wars, even world wars, and uprisings, but these are not signs of the "end" (the "end" spoken of in this passage is the end of Satan's reign - see also "the time of the end" in Daniel 12).



  Part P2: The beginning of the tribulation (from Sep 2023AD) (vs 10-11)

10 Then he said to them: “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 11 There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and great signs from heaven.

This passage is regarding the beginning of the Pre-Millennial tribulation period that starts around 26 Sep 2023 (date from [8]). At this time, Satan will unleash great turmoil around the word, presumably so that the Beast can come in as saviour of the earth. This turmoil will take many forms - international strife, famines, man-made earthquakes, pestilences, fearful events and great signs from heaven, etc. (the second and third horsemen of Revelation are released - Rev 6:3-6). ( Some of the events predicted here - great signs from heaven, fearful events - are not found in other Olivet prophecies.)

This passage seems to contradict the previous passage (vs 8-9), which indicates that wars are not a sign of the "end". However, it is only when all these things come together in an intense period of turmoil of around 2 months that you know the "end" is near.



Subunit B1: The reign of the Beast and its end (vs 12-13)

  Part P1: The tribulation during the reign of the Beast (Nov 2023-Apr 2027) (vs 12)

12 “But above all this, they will seize you and persecute you. They will hand you over to synagogues and put you in prison, and you will be brought before kings and governors, and all on account of my name.

During Satan's reign, Christians will face persecution and inquisitions by authorities. If we take "synagogue", which means "a place of assembly", to represent the organized Christian church (see James 2:2 in Greek), then it appears that the corrupt church of this time will participate in the persecution of the faithful.



  Part P2: The end of the tribulation (Apr 2027) (vs 13)

13 And so you will bear testimony to me.

The faithful will bear testimony, so that the Gospel is preached to the world by the end of Satan's reign. ( Based on the corresponding passage in the chiastic structure in Mark - Mark 13:10 - we believe this passage is regarding the worldwide teaching of God's word. This verse identifies the preachers as the faithful of God.)



Pivot X: The Spirit will guide the faithful (vs 14-15)

14 But make up your mind not to worry beforehand how you will defend yourselves. 15 For I will give you words and wisdom that none of your adversaries will be able to resist or contradict.

Christians who are brought to trial during the reign of the Beast need not worry, as God will guide the faithful in the defence their faith.



Subunit B2: The reign of the Beast and its end (vs 16-19,33)

  Part P1: The tribulation during the reign of the Beast (Nov 2023-Apr 2027) (vs 16-19)

16 You will be betrayed even by parents, brothers and sisters, relatives and friends, and they will put some of you to death. 17 Everyone will hate you because of me. 18 But not a hair of your head will perish. 19 Stand firm, and you will win life.

The righteous will be betrayed by their own family for the benefits they receive from doing so. Christianity and its adherents will be vilified. Many Christians will fail this test of tribulation, but those who patiently endure, even unto death, will win eternal life (see also Dan. 11:33-35, Rev 13:5-10).

Verse 18 ("not a hair of your head will perish") may seem to contradict verse 16 ("some of you will be put to death"), however vs. 18 is a proverbial expression, which indicates that God is in complete control of everything that happens to the faithful and any loss sustained for staying true will be correspondingly rewarded (see also Matthew 10:29-31). Those who remain faithful, even to death, will reign with Christ during his Millennial Reign (Rev. 20:6).



  Part P2: The end of the tribulation (Apr 2027) (vs 33)

33 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away.

This passage concludes vs 13 in the corresponding Subunit B1. By the end of Satan's reign, the everlasting Gospel (good message) will be preached to all nations (see also Rev. 14:6).



Subunit A2: Events before the reign of the Beast (vs 34a,24b,29-31)

  Part P1: Show discernment, Do not be misled (30AD-Sep 2023AD) (vs 34a,24b)

34a “Be careful, or your hearts will be overcome with dissipation and drunkenness for the worries of this world.

Do not lose heart and turn to drunkenness and dissipation when you see great wars or other apparent signs of the "end".



24b Jerusalem will be trampled on by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

In 70AD, at the destruction of the temple, God had severed the connection between the Israelites and the land of Israel (Zech. 11:14), and after that all the Israelites lived in Gentile nations controlled by fallen angels ("trampled on by the Gentiles"). At the beginning of this time of tribulation, Sep 2023, the time of Gentile control over the Israelites will end, and God will once again take ownership over the land of the Israelites, the New Israel ("Jerusalem" synecdochically refers to all of Israel).



  Part P2: The beginning of the tribulation (from Sep 2023AD) (vs 29-31)

29 He told them this parable: “Look at the fig tree and all the trees. 30 When they sprout leaves, you can see for yourselves and know that summer is near. 31 Even so, when you see these things happening, you know that the kingdom of God is near.

Just as sprouting leaves on trees in the spring indicate summer is coming soon, so also the signs of this Period (wars, famines, earthquakes, signs in heaven etc. - Subunit A1 Part P2) indicate that the Messiah will soon appear.

The Messiah will take control over Israel for Christ ("kingdom of God") around the start of the reign of the Beast, and he will begin his reign over the whole world at the end of the reign of the Beast (Rev 19:11-16).



5.4 Period 3 The Start of the End Times Tribulation (unknown date before 2967AD) (vs. 25-28, 34b-36)

This Period is structured as a chiasmus. The pivot, X [27-28], predicts the return of Christ and the accompanying rapture ("redemption"). The subunits, A1 [25-26] and A2 [34b-36], exhort Christians to be worthy of rapture so that they will not face the End-Times Tribulation at Christ's sudden arrival.


25a“There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars.
25b On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea. 26a People will faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on the world,
26b for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.

This Subunit itself forms a chiasmus. The subunits, [25a] and [26b], predict the fall of Satan's angels, and the pivot,[25b-26a], describes the consequent upheaval on earth.

At Christ's return, the political structure of the fallen angels in heaven will be dismantled, and consequently the nations they control on earth will see great political turmoil - the "roaring and tossing of the sea" figuratively refers to this political upheaval (see also, the "earthquakes" of Rev 6:12).

The sun, moon and stars represent Satan's angels ("powers of the heavens") that control the nations outside the New Israel (Deut. 17:3, Luke 21:26) - their reign ends and they face judgement (see Isaiah 24:21-23, Psalm 82:6-8 and the opening of the 6th seal Rev 6:12-14).



27 At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory. 28 When these things begin to take place, stand up and lift up your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”

This pivot predicts that, at the start of the End-Times tribulation, the Son of Man, Jesus Christ, will return in glory. Righteous Christians will be gathered up in the rapture into the presence of God ("redemption") (see Rev 7:9-17). The "cloud" is a short-term transport mechanism between the spiritual and physical realms (see also Dan. 7:13, Rev 1:7) - Christ will immediately return to heaven with the raptured (Rev. 7:9). Note that the events in this pivot take place shortly before the events of Subunit A1.



34b And that day will close on you suddenly like a trap. 35 For it will come on all those who live on the face of the whole earth.
36 Be always on the watch,
and pray that you may be able to escape all that is about to happen, and that you may be able to stand before the Son of Man.”

The coming of the Son of Man and the rapture will happen at a completely unexpected time ("suddenly like a trap"). Christians are exhorted to be prepared for Christ and to be faithful stewards, for those found living unrighteous lives at the time will not be raptured and will instead face the End-Times Tribulations.



Conclusion

With this chiastic reconfiguration, we have shown that this passage contains three interwoven prophecies, regarding times of great tribulation, in a complex chiastic design.

This version of the Olivet discourse has two important predictions that are not found in the other Olivet passages: God and the Messiah will take control of the New Israel around the start of the Pre-Millennial Tribulation period.




References

[1] A Definition of Cryptochiasmus
[2] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of "The 70 Weeks Of Daniel"
[3] First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) by Wikipedia.
[4] Flight to Pella by Wikipedia
[5] Jewish Christian by Wikipedia
[6] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of "The Olivet Discourse" in Matthew 24
[7] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Daniel 8
[8] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Daniel 10-12. Part 3: Daniel 12.
[9] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Revelation 12
[10] A Chiastic Reconfiguration Of Isaiah 60-62
[11] A Commentary on Daniel 7





* First version published on 4 October 2017.